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The Gene Ontology: enhancements for 2011

Chan, J. and Kishore, R. and Sternberg, P. and Van Auken, K. (2012) The Gene Ontology: enhancements for 2011. Nucleic Acids Research, 40 (D1). D559-D564. ISSN 0305-1048. PMCID PMC3245151. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1028.

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The Gene Ontology (GO) ( is a community bioinformatics resource that represents gene product function through the use of structured, controlled vocabularies. The number of GO annotations of gene products has increased due to curation efforts among GO Consortium (GOC) groups, including focused literature-based annotation and ortholog-based functional inference. The GO ontologies continue to expand and improve as a result of targeted ontology development, including the introduction of computable logical definitions and development of new tools for the streamlined addition of terms to the ontology. The GOC continues to support its user community through the use of e-mail lists, social media and web-based resources.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Chan, J.0000-0002-7259-8107
Sternberg, P.0000-0002-7699-0173
Van Auken, K.0000-0002-1706-4196
Additional Information:© 2011 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received September 15, 2011; Revised October 4, 2011; Accepted October 21, 2011. National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) (P41 grant 5P41HG002273-09 to Gene Ontology Consortium) and European Union RTD Programme ‘Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources’ (QLRI-CT-2001-00981 and QLRI-CT-2001-00015 to GO and UniProtKB-GOA groups at EMBL-EBI). Funding for open access charge: National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) (P41 grant 5P41HG002273-09). Conflict of interest statement. None declared.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Union RTD ProgrammeQLRI-CT-2001-00981
European Union RTD ProgrammeQLRI-CT-2001-00015
National Human Genome Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:D1
PubMed Central ID:PMC3245151
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120210-100230074
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:29233
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:10 Feb 2012 21:21
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 17:05

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