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New lensed quasars from the MUSCLES survey

Jackson, Neal and Rampadarath, Hayden and Ofek, Eran O. and Oguri, Masamune and Shin, Min-Su (2012) New lensed quasars from the MUSCLES survey. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 419 (3). pp. 2014-2024. ISSN 0035-8711.

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Gravitational lens systems containing lensed quasars are important as cosmological probes, as diagnostics of structural properties of the lensing galaxies and as tools to study the quasars themselves. The largest lensed quasar sample is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Lens Search (SQLS), drawn from the SDSS. We attempt to extend this survey using observations of lens candidates selected from a combination of the quasar sample from the SDSS and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). This adds somewhat higher image quality together with a wider range of wavelength for the selection process. In previous pilot surveys we observed five objects, finding two lenses; here we present further observations of 20 objects in which we find four lenses, of which two are independently discovered in SQLS. Following earlier work on the combination of these two surveys, we have refined our method and find that use of a colour-separation diagnostic, where we select for separations between components which appear to decrease in wavelength, is an efficient method to find lensed quasars and may be useful in ongoing and future large-scale strong lensing surveys with instruments such as Pan-STARRS and LSST. The new lenses have mostly high flux ratios, with faint secondaries buried in the lensing galaxy and typically 6–10 times less bright than the primary. Our survey brings the total number of lenses discovered in the SDSS quasar sample to 46, plus 13 lenses already known. This is likely to be up to 60–70 per cent of the total number of lensed quasars; we briefly discuss strategies by which the rest might be found.

Item Type:Article
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Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Additional Information:© 2011 The Authors. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS. Accepted 2011 September 19. Received 2011 September 19; in original form 2011 July 15. Article first published online: 8 Nov 2011. We thank Michael Strauss and Ian Browne for comments on the paper. The WHT is operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. This work also uses data from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-metre telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We would like to thank the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the organizers of the KITP workshop ‘Applications of Gravitational Lensing’ for hospitality. This work began at this KITP workshop. HR was supported by the EU under the Marie Curie Early-Stage Training network MEST-CT-2005-19669 ‘Estrela’. EOO is supported by an Einstein Fellowship and NASA grants. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant no. PHY05-51164 and by the Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. This work is based on data obtained as part of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, UKIDSS ( This work was supported in part by the FIRST programme ‘Subaru Measurements of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe)’, World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the JSPS (23740161). Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho and the Max-Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS website is The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) for the Participating Institutions.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Marie Curie FellowhsipMEST-CT-2005-19669
NASA Einstein FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
FIRST programme ‘Subaru Measurements of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)23740161
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Japanese MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: strong; galaxies: quasars: general
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120224-104722112
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Official Citation:Jackson, N., Rampadarath, H., Ofek, E. O., Oguri, M. and Shin, M.-S. (2012), New lensed quasars from the MUSCLES survey. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 419: 2014–2024. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19857.x
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:29456
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:24 Feb 2012 21:07
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 03:41

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