A Caltech Library Service

Isolation, Phenotypic Characterization, and Complementation Analysis of Mutants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 Unable To Synthesize Pyrroloquinoline Quinone and Sequences of pqqD, pqqG, and pqqC

Morris, Christina J. and Biville, Francis and Turlin, Evelyne and Lee, Eun and Ellermann, Kerstin and Fan, Wen-Hsiu and Ramamoorthi, Roopa and Springer, Amy L. and Lidstrom, Mary E. (1994) Isolation, Phenotypic Characterization, and Complementation Analysis of Mutants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 Unable To Synthesize Pyrroloquinoline Quinone and Sequences of pqqD, pqqG, and pqqC. Journal of Bacteriology, 176 (6). pp. 1746-1755. ISSN 0021-9193. PMCID PMC205263.

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Aerobic gram-negative methylotrophs oxidize methanol to formaldehyde by using a methanol dehydrogenase that has pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a prosthetic group. Seventy-two mutants which are unable to grow on methanol unless the growth medium is supplemented with PQQ have been isolated in the facultative methanol utilizer Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. In addition, 12 previously isolated methanol oxidation mutants of M. extorquens AM1 were shown to be able to grow on methanol in the presence of PQQ. These putative PQQ biosynthesis mutants have been complemented by using previously isolated clones containing M. extorquens AM1 DNA, which were known to contain genes necessary for oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde (mox genes). Subcloning and transposon mutagenesis experiments have assigned these mutants to five complementation groups in two gene clusters. Representatives of each complementation group were shown to lack detectable PQQ in the growth medium and in cell extracts and to contain methanol dehydrogenase polypeptides that were inactive. Therefore, these mutants all appear to be defective in PQQ biosynthesis. PQQ biosynthesis mutants of Methylobacterium organophilum DSM 760 and M. organophilum XX were complemented by using M. extorquens AM1 subclones, and PQQ biosynthesis mutants of M. extorquens AM1 and M. organophilum XX were complemented by using M. organophilum DSM 760 subclones. This analysis suggested that a total of six PQQ biosynthesis complementation groups were present in M. extorquens AM1 and M. organophilum DSM 760. A 2-kb M. extorquens AM1 DNA fragment that complemented the MoxO class of PQQ biosynthesis mutants was sequenced and found to contain two complete open reading frames and the N-terminal sequence of a third. These genes designated pqqDGC, had predicted gene products with substantial similarity to the gene products of corresponding pqq genes in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. pqqD encodes a 29-amino-acid peptide which contains a tyrosine residue and glutamate residue that are conserved in the equivalent peptides of K. pneumoniae, PqqA (23 amino acids), and A. calcoaceticus, PqqIV (24 amino acids), and are thought to be the precursors for PQQ biosynthesis. The organizations of a cluster of five PQQ biosynthetic genes appear to be similiar in four different bacteria (M. extorquens AM1, M. organophilum DSM 760, K. pneumoniae, and A. calcoaceticus). Our results show that a total of seven pqq genes are present in M. extorquens AM1, and these have been designated pqqDGCBA and pqqEF.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Additional Information:© 1994 American Society for Microbiology. Received 15 September 1993. Accepted 9 January 1994. This work was supported by a grant from the NIH to M.E.L. (GM36296) and a grant from C.N.R.S.-I.P. (UA 1129) to F.B. We thank F. Gasser for helpful discussions and R. S. Hanson for providing the M. organophilum XX mutants.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UA 1129
Issue or Number:6
PubMed Central ID:PMC205263
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120302-074613429
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Isolation, phenotypic characterization, and complementation analysis of mutants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 unable to synthesize pyrroloquinoline quinone and sequences of pqqD, pqqG, and pqqC. C J Morris, F Biville, E Turlin, E Lee, K Ellermann, W H Fan, R Ramamoorthi, A L Springer, and M E Lidstrom J. Bacteriol. March 1994 176:1746-1755
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:29553
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:02 Mar 2012 16:41
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 03:42

Repository Staff Only: item control page