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Cis-regulatory logic driving glial cells missing: Self-sustaining circuitry in later embryogenesis

Ransick, Andrew and Davidson, Eric H. (2012) Cis-regulatory logic driving glial cells missing: Self-sustaining circuitry in later embryogenesis. Developmental Biology, 364 (2). pp. 259-267. ISSN 0012-1606. PMCID PMC3561781. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.02.003.

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The glial cells missing (gcm) regulatory gene of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is first expressed in veg2 daughter cells as the genomic target of late cleavage stage Delta-Notch signaling from the skeletogenic mesoderm precursors. Gcm is required in veg2 progeny during late cleavages for the early phase of pigment cell precursor specification. Here we report on a later acting cis-regulatory module that assumes control of gcm expression by the early mesenchyme blastula stage and maintains it through pigment cell differentiation and dispersal. Cis-perturbation analyses reveal that the two critical elements within this late module are consensus matches to Gcm and Six1 binding sites. Significantly, six1 mRNA localizes to gcm + cells from the mesenchyme blastula stage onwards. Trans-perturbations with anti-sense morpholinos reveal a co-dependency between six1 and gcm. Six1 mRNA levels fall sharply after Gcm is depleted, while depleting Six1 leads to significant reductions in output of endogenous gcm or modular-reporters. These results support the conclusion gcm and six1 comprise a positive intergenic feedback loop in the mesodermal GRN. This often employed cross regulatory GRN feature here ensures self-sustaining gcm output in a cohort of fully specified pigment cell precursors at a relatively early developmental stage.

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Additional Information:© 2012 Elsevier Inc. Received 4 October 2011. Revised 20 January 2012. Accepted 2 February 2012. Available online 13 February 2012. We are pleased to acknowledge Stefan Materna for helpful discussions and for sharing his mesodermal GRN data prior to its publication; Julie Hahn and Ping Dong for BAC constructs, and the labs of S. Fraser, E. Rothenberg and B. Wold for sharing resources. This work is supported by NIH grant HD-37105.
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Subject Keywords:Echinoid; Pigment cell; Mesoderm; cis-regulation; Autoregulatory; Intergenic feedback loop
Issue or Number:2
PubMed Central ID:PMC3561781
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120416-131358867
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Official Citation:Andrew Ransick, Eric H. Davidson, Cis-regulatory logic driving glial cells missing: Self-sustaining circuitry in later embryogenesis, Developmental Biology, Volume 364, Issue 2, 15 April 2012, Pages 259-267, ISSN 0012-1606, 10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.02.003.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:30104
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Apr 2012 18:08
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 19:36

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