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The Spectral Energy Distribution and Infrared Luminosities of z ≈ 2 Dust-obscured Galaxies from Herschel and Spitzer

Melbourne, J. and Soifer, B. T. and Desai, Vandana and Pope, Alexandra and Armus, Lee and Dey, Arjun and Bussmann, R. S. and Jannuzi, B. T. and Alberts, Stacey (2012) The Spectral Energy Distribution and Infrared Luminosities of z ≈ 2 Dust-obscured Galaxies from Herschel and Spitzer. Astronomical Journal, 143 (5). Art. No. 125. ISSN 0004-6256.

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Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L_(IR) > 10^(12) L_☉). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10^(11.6) L_☉ <L_(IR)(8-1000 μm) < 10^(13.6) L_☉. 90% of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30% have L_(IR) > 10^(13) L_☉. The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with "power-law" SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar "bump" in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC 6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ~25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L_(IR)(8-1000 μm)/νL_ν(8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 "infrared main sequence" of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up versions of local ULIRGs in terms of 250/24 μm flux density ratio, and IR8, they tend to have cooler far-IR dust temperatures (20-40 K for DOGs versus 40-50 K for local ULIRGs) as measured by the rest-frame 80/115 μm flux density ratios (e.g., observed-frame 250/350 μm ratios at z = 2). DOGs that are not detected by Herschel appear to have lower observed-frame 250/24 μm ratios than the detected sample, either because of warmer dust temperatures, lower IR luminosities, or both.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Desai, Vandana0000-0002-1340-0543
Pope, Alexandra0000-0001-8592-2706
Armus, Lee0000-0003-3498-2973
Dey, Arjun0000-0002-4928-4003
Jannuzi, B. T.0000-0002-1578-6582
Additional Information:© 2012 American Astronomical Society. Received 2011 December 23; accepted 2012 March 5; published 2012 April 16. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. This work is based (in part) on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. We acknowledge the MIPS GTO team for producing the Spitzer 24μm imaging and source catalogs of the Boötes field. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC (UK); and NASA (USA). We also acknowledge the HerMES collaboration for providing this excellent data set across the Boötes field. The US Herschel Science Center also provided a workshop on SPIRE image reduction and photometry that was very valuable for our understanding of the data. The research activities of A.D. and B.T.J. are supported by NOAO, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Facilities: Herschel, Spitzer, Mayall, Keck:I, Keck:II, Gemini:Gillett
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: high-redshift; galaxies: starburst; infrared: galaxies; submillimeter: galaxies
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120515-073320668
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Official Citation:The Spectral Energy Distributions and Infrared Luminosities of z 2 Dust-obscured Galaxies from Herschel and Spitzer J. Melbourne et al. 2012 The Astronomical Journal 143 125
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:31460
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:15 May 2012 16:10
Last Modified:28 Oct 2019 20:36

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