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A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia

Williamson, Peter C. and Allman, John M. (2012) A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6 . Art. No. 184. ISSN 1662-5161. PMCID PMC3380255. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00184.

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Some promising genetic correlates of schizophrenia have emerged in recent years but none explain more than a small fraction of cases. The challenge of our time is to characterize the neuronal networks underlying schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric illnesses. Early models of schizophrenia have been limited by the ability to readily evaluate large-scale networks in living patients. With the development of resting state and advanced structural magnetic resonance imaging, it has become possible to do this. While we are at an early stage, a number of models of intrinsic brain networks have been developed to account for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the recent voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging literature in light of the proposed networks underlying these disorders. It is suggested that there is support for recently proposed models that suggest a pivotal role for the salience network. However, the interactions of this network with the default mode network and executive control networks are not sufficient to explain schizophrenic symptoms or distinguish them from other neuropsychiatric disorders. Alternatively, it is proposed that schizophrenia arises from a uniquely human brain network associated with directed effort including the dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), auditory cortex, and hippocampus while mood disorders arise from a different brain network associated with emotional encoding including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbital frontal cortex, and amygdala. Both interact with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and a representation network including the frontal and temporal poles and the fronto-insular cortex, allowing the representation of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of self and others across time.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00184DOIArticle CentralArticle
Additional Information:© 2012 Williamson and Allman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited. Received: 10 November 2011; Accepted: 02 June 2012; Published online: 21 June 2012. This research was supported by the Tanna Schulich Chair in Neuroscience and Mental Health, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Frank P. Hixon Chair of Neurobiology, the James S. McDonnell Foundation, the Simons Foundation, and the National Institutes of Mental Health.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Tanna Schulich Chair in Neuroscience and Mental HealthUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)UNSPECIFIED
Frank P. Hixon Chair of NeurobiologyUNSPECIFIED
James S. McDonnell FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, functional MRI, voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, default mode network, salience network
PubMed Central ID:PMC3380255
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120807-080951443
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Official Citation:Williamson PC and Allman JM (2012) A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:184. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00184
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:32962
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:07 Aug 2012 15:40
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 21:31

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