A Caltech Library Service

The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater during the Last Glacial Maximum

Schrag, Daniel P. and Adkins, Jess F. and McIntyre, Katherine and Alexander, Jane L. and Hodell, David A. and Charles, Christopher D. and McManus, Jerry F. (2002) The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21 (1-3). pp. 331-342. ISSN 0277-3791.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


High-resolution oxygen and hydrogen isotope measurements were made on pore fluids from deep-sea sediments from sites in the North and South Atlantic. The data provide direct measurements of changes in the isotopic composition of bottom waters during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 981 in the North Atlantic, currently bathed in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) reproduces previous results from the Ceara and Bermuda Rises, constraining the glacial–interglacial change in δ^(18)O of the deep Atlantic to be 0.7–0.8‰. Results from Site 984, which is located north of Site 981 and at a shallower water depth, yield a similar value (0.8‰), providing insight into the properties of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water (GNAIW). Sites from ODP Leg 177 in the South Atlantic span the modern boundary between northern and southern sources of deep water. Data from the northern site (1088) yield a similar result to sites in the tropical and North Atlantic (0.7‰). At the southern site (1093), located south of the polar front, the change is substantially larger (1.1‰), representing the change in δ^(18)O of southern source waters since the LGM. These results confirm previous estimates that the global average change in δ^(18)O of seawater is 1.0±0.1‰. Hydrogen isotopes measured on pore fluids from three sites are consistent with the oxygen isotopes from these locations, giving further support to these results. At all sites studied, the temperature of the deep ocean during the LGM, calculated by combining the pore fluid results with oxygen isotope data from benthic foraminifera, was within 1°C of the freezing point of seawater.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Adkins, Jess F.0000-0002-3174-5190
McManus, Jerry F.0000-0002-7365-1600
Additional Information:© 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Received 30 January 2001; Accepted 8 August 2001; Available online 11 December 2001. The authors thank Ethan Goddard for technical assistance. Reviews by Art Spivack and Gideon Henderson greatly improved the manuscript. This work was supportedby NSF awards 0096909 to Schrag and 0096814 to Adkins.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Issue or Number:1-3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120828-095932442
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Daniel P. Schrag, Jess F. Adkins, Katherine McIntyre, Jane L. Alexander, David A. Hodell, Christopher D. Charles, Jerry F. McManus, The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater during the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 21, Issues 1–3, January 2002, Pages 331-342, ISSN 0277-3791, 10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00110-X. (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:33598
Deposited By: Aucoeur Ngo
Deposited On:28 Aug 2012 17:17
Last Modified:24 Feb 2020 10:30

Repository Staff Only: item control page