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Properties of Dynamic Earthquake Ruptures With Heterogeneous Stress Drop

Ampuero, J.-P. and Ripperger, J. and Mai, P. M. (2006) Properties of Dynamic Earthquake Ruptures With Heterogeneous Stress Drop. In: Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting. Geophysical Monograph. No.170. American Geophysical Union , Washington, DC, pp. 255-261. ISBN 9780875904351.

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Earthquake rupture is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. We introduce a simplified semi-dynamic crack model to investigate the connection between the statistical properties of stress and those of macroscopic source parameters such as rupture size, seismic moment, apparent stress drop and radiated energy. Rupture initiation is treated consistently with nucleation on a linear slip-weakening fault, whereas rupture propagation and arrest are treated according to the Griffith criterion. The available stress drop is prescribed as a spatially correlated random field and is shown to potentially sustain a broad range of magnitudes. By decreasing the amplitude of the stress heterogeneities or increasing their correlation length the distribution of earthquake sizes presents a transition from Gutenberg- Richter to characteristic earthquake behavior. This transition is studied through a mean-field analysis. The bifurcation to characteristic earthquake behavior is sharp, reminiscent of a first-order phase transition. A lower roll-off magnitude observed in the Gutenberg-Richter regime is shown to depend on the correlation length of the available stress drop, rather than being a direct signature of the nucleation process. More generally, we highlight the possible role of the stress correlation length scale on deviations from earthquake source self-similarity. The present reduced model is a building block towards understanding the effect of structural and dynamic fault heterogeneities on the scaling of source parameters and on basic properties of seismicity.

Item Type:Book Section
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URLURL TypeDescription
Ampuero, J.-P.0000-0002-4827-7987
Additional Information:© 2006 American Geophysical Union. We thank A. McGarr, R. Abercrombie and H. Kanamori for organizing the 2005 Chapman conference on Radiated Seismic Energy which provided the stimulating discussions that led to this work. J.-P. A. is grateful to T. Heaton, J. Schmittbuhl and A. Cochard for fruitful discussions. Funding for J.-P. A. was provided by SPICE, a Marie Curie Research Training Network in the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission. This is ETH contribution No. 1443.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Commission, Marie Curie Research Trianing NetworkUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Seismic waves; Energy dissipation; Faults (Geology); Seismology; Seismology
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Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
ETH Zurich, Institute of Geophysics1443
Series Name:Geophysical Monograph
Issue or Number:170
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120830-075047141
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Official Citation:Ampuero, J.-P., J. Ripperger, and P. M. Mai (2006), Properties of dynamic earthquake ruptures with heterogeneous stress drop, in Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 170, edited by R. Abercrombie et al., pp. 255–261, AGU, Washington, D. C., doi:10.1029/170GM25
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:33697
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Aug 2012 17:02
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 04:12

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