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Seismic Radiation From Simple Models of Earthquakes

Madariaga, R. and Ampuero, J. P. and Adda-Bedia, M. (2006) Seismic Radiation From Simple Models of Earthquakes. In: Earthquakes: radiated energy and the physics of faulting. Geophysical Monograph. No.170. American Geophysical Union , Washington, DC., pp. 223-236. ISBN 9780875904351.

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We review some basic features of shear wave generation and energy balance for a 2D anti plane rupture. We first study the energy balance for a flat fault, and for a fault that contains a single localized kink. We determine an exact expression for the partition between strain energy flow released from the elastic medium surrounding the fault, radiated energy flow and energy release rate. This balance depends only on the rupture speed and the residual stress intensity factor. When the fault contains a kink, the energy available for fracture is reduced so that the rupture speed is reduced. When rupture speed changes abruptly, the radiated energy flow also changes abruptly. As rupture propagates across the kink, a shear wave is emitted that has a displacement spectral content that decreases like ω^(-2) at high frequencies. We then use spectral elements to model the propagation of an antiplane crack with a slip-weakening friction law. Since the rupture front in this case has a finite length scale, the wave emitted by the kink is smoothed at very high frequencies but its general behavior is similar to that predicted by the simple sharp crack model. A model of a crack that has several kinks and wanders around a mean rupture directions, shows that kinks reduce the rupture speed along the average rupture direction of the fault. Contrary to flat fault models, a fault with kinks produces high frequency waves that are emitted every time the rupture front turns at a kink. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the present results to a 3D rupture model.

Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Madariaga, R.0000-0003-2524-9489
Ampuero, J. P.0000-0002-4827-7987
Additional Information:© 2006 American Geophysical Union. Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure is associated with CNRS (UMR 8550) and with Universities Paris VI and Paris VII. Raul Madariaga and J.-P. Ampuero's work was supported by the SPICE Research and training network network of the 6th framework program of the European Community. This work is also part of project "Seismulators" of Agence Nationale pour la Recherche Catell. We that Dr Luis Rivera for his careful review of an earlier version of this paper.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Marie Curie FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Seismic waves; Energy dissipation; Faults (Geology); Seismology
Series Name:Geophysical Monograph
Issue or Number:170
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20120830-095736559
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:33703
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Aug 2012 17:37
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 21:36

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