Kamionkowski, Marc and Kosowsky, Arthur and Turner, Michael S. (1994) Gravitational radiation from firstorder phase transitions. Physical Review D, 49 (6). pp. 28372851. ISSN 24700010. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:KAMprd94b

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Abstract
We consider the stochastic background of gravity waves produced by firstorder cosmological phase transitions from two types of sources: colliding bubbles and hydrodynamic turbulence. First we discuss the fluid mechanics of relativistic spherical combustion. We then numerically collide many bubbles expanding at a velocity v and calculate the resulting spectrum of gravitational radiation in the linearized gravity approximation. Our results are expressed as simple functions of the mean bubble separation, the bubble expansion velocity, the latent heat, and the efficiency of converting latent heat to kinetic energy of the bubble walls. A firstorder phase transition is also likely to excite a Kolmogoroff spectrum of turbulence. We estimate the gravity waves produced by such a spectrum of turbulence and find that the characteristic amplitude of the gravity waves produced is comparable to that from bubble collisions. Finally, we apply these results to the electroweak transition. Using the oneloop effective potential for the minimal electroweak model, the characteristic amplitude of the gravity waves produced is h≃1.5×10^27 at a characteristic frequency of 4.1 × 10^3 Hz corresponding to Ω∼10^22 in gravity waves, far too small for detection. Gravity waves from more strongly firstorder phase transitions, including the electroweak transition in nonminimal models, have better prospects for detection, though probably not by LIGO.
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Additional Information:  ©1 994 The American Physical Society Received 26 October 1993 We thank David DeYoung for several helpful discussions about turbulence. M.K. has been supported in part by the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission and by the DOE through Grant No. DEFG0290ER40542. A.K. and M.S.T. are supported by the DOE (at Chicago and Fermilab) and by NASA through Grant No. NAGW 2831 (at Fermilab). A.K. was supported in part by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program.  
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