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Extensional tectonics and global volcanism

Favela, Javier and Anderson, Don L. (2000) Extensional tectonics and global volcanism. In: Problems in Geophysics for the New Millennium. Editrice Compositori , Bologna, Italy, pp. 463-498. ISBN 9788877942555. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20121011-153223480

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Abstract

Most of the world's hotspots occur on or near plate boundaries. Proposed "hotspot tracks" are primarily along pre-existing linear features, and volcanism is controlled by extensional stress. These linear features are transform faults, fracture zones and abandoned ridges. Almost half of the "midplate" volcanoes occur on young (< 30 My) lithosphere. The correlations of volcanoes with seafloor age, topography, fracture zones, gravity and focal mechanisms show that tensional tectonics is essential for volcanism, supporting the hypothesis that volcanism is controlled by lithospheric architecture and stress, not by hot narrow jets. Non-thermal explanations for focused magmatism are consistent with absence of heat flow, uplift and subsidence anomalies. Extensional stresses and lithospheric fabric are the controlling influences on the timing and location of "midplate" volcanism. Island and seamount chains provide maps of stress and fabric, not plate motion.


Item Type:Book Section
Additional Information:© 2000 Editrice Compositori. We would like to thank the Irvine Foundation and NSF EAR-9726252 for their support of this research. This paper represents contribution No. 8549, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
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Funding AgencyGrant Number
Irvine FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFEAR-9726252
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Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences8549
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20121011-153223480
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20121011-153223480
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:34860
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 Oct 2012 18:43
Last Modified:23 Aug 2016 10:19

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