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Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers

Kalkman, J. and Tchebotareva, A. and Polman, A. and Kippenberg, T. J. and Bin, M. and Vahala, K. J. (2006) Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers. Journal of Applied Physics, 99 (8). Art. No. 083103. ISSN 0021-8979. doi:10.1063/1.2188050.

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Erbium-doped SiO2 toroidal microcavity lasers are fabricated on a Si substrate using a combination of optical lithography, etching, Er ion implantation, and CO2 laser reflow. Erbium is either preimplanted in the SiO2 base material or postimplanted into a fully fabricated microtoroid. Three-dimensional infrared confocal photoluminescence spectroscopy imaging is used to determine the spatial distribution of optically active Er ions in the two types of microtoroids, and distinct differences are found. Microprobe Rutherford backscattering spectrometry indicates that no macroscopic Er diffusion occurs during the laser reflow for preimplanted microtoroids. From the measured Er doping profiles and calculated optical mode distributions the overlap factor between the Er distribution and mode profile is calculated: Gamma=0.066 and Gamma=0.02 for postimplanted and preimplanted microtoroids, respectively. Single and multimode lasing around 1.5 µm is observed for both types of microtoroids, with the lowest lasing threshold (4.5 µW) observed for the preimplanted microtoroids, which possess the smallest mode volume. When excited in the proper geometry, a clear mode spectrum is observed superimposed on the Er spontaneous emission spectrum. This result indicates the coupling of Er ions to cavity modes.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Polman, A.0000-0002-0685-3886
Kippenberg, T. J.0000-0002-3408-886X
Vahala, K. J.0000-0003-1783-1380
Additional Information:© 2006 American Institute of Physics. (Received 8 June 2005; accepted 22 February 2006; published online 27 April 2006) Leo IJzendoorn and Peter Mutsaers are thanked for their help with the µRBS measurements. The Dutch part of this work is part of the research program of the “Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie FOM,” which is financially supported by the “Nederlandse organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek NWO.” One of the authors A.T. is grateful to Funds of NATEQ Québec, Canada for postdoctoral scholarship. Research at the California Institute of Technology was funded by the DAPRA, the NSF, and the Caltech Lee Center for Advanced Networking.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)UNSPECIFIED
Caltech Lee Center for Advanced NetworkingUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:erbium; microcavity lasers; photolithography; solid lasers; etching; ion implantation; photoluminescence; Rutherford backscattering; doping profiles; laser modes; spontaneous emission
Issue or Number:8
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:KALjap06
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:3490
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:08 Jun 2006
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 19:56

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