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The Larval Stages of the Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

Smith, M. Meighan and Cruz Smith, Luisa and Cameron, R. Andrew and Urry, Lisa A. (2008) The Larval Stages of the Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Journal of Morphology, 269 (6). pp. 713-733. ISSN 0362-2525. doi:10.1002/jmor.10618.

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The adult body plan of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is established within the imaginal rudiment during the larval stages. To facilitate the study of these stages, we have defined a larval staging scheme, which consists of seven stages: Stage I, four-arm stage; Stage II, eight-arm stage; Stage III, vestibular invagination stage; Stage IV, rudiment initiation stage; Stage V, pentagonal disc stage; Stage VI, advanced rudiment stage; and Stage VI, tube-foot protrusion stage. Each stage is characterized by significant morphological features observed for the first time at that stage. This scheme is intended as a guide for determining the degree of larval development, and for identifying larval and adult structures. Larval anatomy was visualized using light and confocal microscopy as required on living material, whole mount fixed specimens, and serial sections. Antibody staining to localize specific gene products was also used. Detailed analysis of these data has furthered our understanding of the morphogenesis of the rudiment, and has suggested provocative questions regarding the molecular basis for these events. We intend this work to be of use to investigators studying gene expression and morphogenesis in postembryonic larvae.

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Cameron, R. Andrew0000-0003-3947-6041
Additional Information:© 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Issue published online: 14 May 2008; Article first published online: 25 Apr 2008. Contract grant sponsor: National Science Foundation (Developmental Mechanisms Program); Contract grant number: IBN- 9982875; Contract grant sponsors: the Barrett Foundation, the Scheffler Equipment Fund. The authors would like to thank Fred Wilt, Barbara Bowman, and Elaine Tan for review of the manuscript, and Grace Panganiban for the gift of the anti-distalless antiserum. LU would also like to thank Pat Hamilton, Chris Lowe, and Lisa Labrecque as well as former and current members of the Urry lab at Mills College, for additional assistance.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Barrett FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords: development; rudiment; metamorphosis; adult body plan
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20121024-151626927
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Official Citation:Smith, M. M., Cruz Smith, L., Cameron,, R. A. and Urry, L. A. (2008), The larval stages of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. J. Morphol., 269: 713–733. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10618
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:35077
Deposited On:24 Oct 2012 23:03
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 23:12

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