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Germ line determinants are not localized early in sea urchin development, but do accumulate in the small micromere lineage

Juliano, Celina E. and Voronina, Ekaterina and Stack, Christie and Aldrich, Maryanna and Cameron, R. Andrew and Wessel, Gary M. (2006) Germ line determinants are not localized early in sea urchin development, but do accumulate in the small micromere lineage. Developmental Biology, 300 (1). pp. 406-415. ISSN 0012-1606.

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Two distinct modes of germ line determination are used throughout the animal kingdom: conditional—an inductive mechanism, and autonomous—an inheritance of maternal factors in early development. This study identifies homologs of germ line determinants in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to examine its mechanism of germ line determination. A list of conserved germ-line associated genes from diverse organisms was assembled to search the S. purpuratus genome for homologs, and the expression patterns of these genes were examined during embryogenesis by whole mount in situ RNA hybridization and QPCR. Of the 14 genes tested, all transcripts accumulate uniformly during oogenesis and Sp-pumilio, Sp-tudor, Sp-MSY, and Sp-CPEB1 transcripts are also uniformly distributed during embryonic development. Sp-nanos2, Sp-seawi, and Sp-ovo transcripts, however, are enriched in the vegetal plate of the mesenchyme blastula stage and Sp-vasa, Sp-nanos2, Sp-seawi, and Sp-SoxE transcripts are localized in small micromere descendents at the tip of the archenteron during gastrulation and are then enriched in the left coelomic pouch of larvae. The results of this screen suggest that sea urchins conditionally specify their germ line, and support the hypothesis that this mechanism is the basal mode of germ line determination amongst deuterostomes. Furthermore, accumulation of germ line determinants selectively in small micromere descendents supports the hypothesis that these cells contribute to the germ line.

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Cameron, R. Andrew0000-0003-3947-6041
Additional Information:© 2006 Elsevier Inc. Received for publication 10 May 2006; revised 20 July 2006; accepted 27 July 2006. Available online 4 August 2006. We thank Julian Wong for imaging assistance, and all current and past members of PRIMO for helpful discussions. This work was supported by grants from the NIH and the NSF.
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Subject Keywords:Sea urchin; Germ line; Small micromeres; Deuterostome; Nanos; Vasa; DMRT; Mago nashi; Pumilio; Piwi; SoxE; Tudor; Boule; Germ cell-less; MSY; CPEB; Ovo; MORC
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20121025-105933518
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Official Citation:Celina E. Juliano, Ekaterina Voronina, Christie Stack, Maryanna Aldrich, Andrew R. Cameron, Gary M. Wessel, Germ line determinants are not localized early in sea urchin development, but do accumulate in the small micromere lineage, Developmental Biology, Volume 300, Issue 1, 1 December 2006, Pages 406-415, ISSN 0012-1606, 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.07.035. (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:35095
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:25 Oct 2012 18:27
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 04:25

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