A Caltech Library Service

Atomic theory of liquid helium near absolute zero

Feynman, R. P. (1953) Atomic theory of liquid helium near absolute zero. Physical Review, 91 (6). pp. 1301-1308. ISSN 0031-899X. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.91.1301.

See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


The properties of liquid helium at very low temperatures (below 0.5°K) are discussed from the atomic point of view. It is argued that the lowest states are compressional waves (phonons). Long-range motions which leave density unaltered (stirrings) are impossible for Bose statistics since they simply permute the atoms. Motions on an atomic scale are possible, but require a minimum energy of excitation. Therefore at low temperature the specific heat varies as T3 and the flow resistance of the fluid is small. The arguments are entirely qualitative—no calculation of the energy of excitation nor of the low-temperature viscosity is given. In an appendix an expression, previously given, for the partition function is modified to include the effects of phonons.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Additional Information:©1953 The American Physical Society. Received 1 June 1953. The author has profited from conversations with E. Wigner, H. A. Bethe, and R. F. Christy.
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:FEYpr53c
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:3538
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 Jun 2006
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 19:56

Repository Staff Only: item control page