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Lesion mapping of cognitive control and value-based decision making in the prefrontal cortex

Gläscher, Jan and Adolphs, Ralph and Damasio, Hanna and Bechara, Antoine and Rudrauf, David and Calamia, Matthew and Paul, Lynn K. and Tranel, Daniel (2012) Lesion mapping of cognitive control and value-based decision making in the prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (36). pp. 14681-14686. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC3437894.

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A considerable body of previous research on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has helped characterize the regional specificity of various cognitive functions, such as cognitive control and decision making. Here we provide definitive findings on this topic, using a neuropsychological approach that takes advantage of a unique dataset accrued over several decades. We applied voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in 344 individuals with focal lesions (165 involving the PFC) who had been tested on a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks. Two distinct functional-anatomical networks were revealed within the PFC: one associated with cognitive control (response inhibition, conflict monitoring, and switching), which included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex and a second associated with value-based decision-making, which included the orbitofrontal, ventromedial, and frontopolar cortex. Furthermore, cognitive control tasks shared a common performance factor related to set shifting that was linked to the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. By contrast, regions in the ventral PFC were required for decision-making. These findings provide detailed causal evidence for a remarkable functional-anatomical specificity in the human PFC.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Adolphs, Ralph0000-0002-8053-9692
Paul, Lynn K.0000-0002-3128-8313
Additional Information:© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. Edited by Marcus E. Raichle, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, and approved July 26, 2012 (received for review April 19, 2012. Published online before print August 20, 2012. Kenneth Manzel assisted in collecting and standardizing the neuropsychological data, Joel Bruss assisted in transferring the lesions of individual patients into a common reference space, and Nicholas Jones provided support with data management. This work was funded by German Ministry of Research and Education Grant 01GQ1006 (to J.G.), National Institutes of Health Grants P50 NS19632 (to H.D., D.T., R.A., and A.B.) and R01 DA022549 (to D.T.), grants from the Kiwanis Foundation (to D.T.), and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (to R.A.). Author contributions: J.G. and R.A. designed research; H.D., A.B., D.R., M.C., and D.T. performed research; J.G., R.A., M.C., and L.K.P. analyzed data; and J.G., R.A., H.D., A.B., D.R., L.K.P., and D.T. wrote the paper.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)01GQ1006
NIHP50 NS19632
NIHR01 DA022549
Kiwanis FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:executive function; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Trail-Making Test; Stroop Test; Iowa Gambling Task
Issue or Number:36
PubMed Central ID:PMC3437894
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20121127-085213870
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:35659
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:27 Nov 2012 21:04
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 04:30

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