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Chemistry of C_3 and carbon chain molecules in DR21(OH)

Mookerjea, B. and Hassel, G. E. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. and Herbst, E. and Black, J. H. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Menten, K. M. and Krełowski, J. and De Luca, M. and Csengeri, T. and Joblin, C. and Kaźmierczak, M. and Schmidt, M. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Cernicharo, J. and Stutzki, J. (2012) Chemistry of C_3 and carbon chain molecules in DR21(OH). Astronomy and Astrophysics, 546 . Art. No. A75. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219287.

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Context. C_3 is the smallest pure carbon chain detected in the dense environment of star-forming regions, although diatomic C_2 is detected in diffuse clouds. Measurement of the abundance of C_3 and the chemistry of its formation in dense star-forming regions has remained relatively unexplored. Aims. We aim to identify the primary C_3 formation routes in dense star-forming regions following a chemical network producing species like CCH and c-C_(3)H_2 in the star-forming cores associated with DR21(OH), a high-mass star-forming region. Methods. We observed velocity resolved spectra of four ro-vibrational far-infrared transitions of C3 between the vibrational ground state and the low-energy ν_2 bending mode at frequencies between 1654–1897 GHz using HIFI on board Herschel, in DR21(OH). Several transitions of CCH and c-C_(3)H_2 were also observed with HIFI and the IRAM 30 m telescope. Rotational temperatures and column densities for all chemical species were estimated. A gas and grain warm-up model was used to obtain estimates of densities and temperatures of the envelope. The chemical network in the model was used to identify the primary C_3 forming reactions in DR21(OH). Results. We detected C_3 in absorption in four far-infrared transitions, P(4), P(10), Q(2), and Q(4). The continuum sources MM1 and MM2 in DR21(OH), though spatially unresolved, are sufficiently separated in velocity to be identified in the C3 spectra. All C_3 transitions are detected from the embedded source MM2 and the surrounding envelope, whereas only Q(4) and P(4) are detected toward the hot core MM1. The abundance of C3 in the envelope and MM2 is ~6 × 10^(-10) and ~3 × 10^(-9), respectively. For CCH and c-C_(3)H_2, we only detect emission from the envelope and MM1. The observed CCH, C_3  and c-C_(3)H_2 abundances are most consistent with a chemical model with nH_2 ~ 5 × 10^6 cm^(-3), a post-warm-up dust temperature T_max = 30 K, and a time of ~0.7–3 Myr. Conclusions. Post-warm-up gas phase chemistry of CH4 released from the grain at t ~ 0.2 Myr and lasting for 1 Myr can explain the observed C_3 abundance in the envelope of DR21(OH), and no mechanism involving photodestruction of PAH molecules is required. The chemistry in the envelope is similar to the warm carbon chain chemistry found in lukewarm corinos. We interpret the observed lower C_3 abundance in MM1 as compared to MM2 and the envelope to be due to the destruction of C_3 in the more evolved MM1. The timescale for the chemistry derived for the envelope is consistent with the dynamical timescale of 2 Myr derived for DR21(OH) in other studies.

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Goldsmith, P. F.0000-0002-6622-8396
Menten, K. M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Additional Information:© 2012 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 27 March 2012; Accepted 5 August 2012. Published online 08 October 2012. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, with important participation from NASA. HIFI has been designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments from across Europe, Canada and the United States under the leadership of SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Groningen, The Netherlands and with major contributions from Germany, France and the US. Consortium members are: Canada: CSA, U. Waterloo; France: CESR, LAB, LERMA, IRAM; Germany: KOSMA, MPIfR, MPS; Ireland, NUI Maynooth; Italy: ASI, IFSI-INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri-INAF; The Netherlands: SRON, TUD; Poland: CAMK, CBK; Spain: Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Centro de Astrobiologá (CSIC-INTA). Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology – MC2, RSS & GARD; Onsala Space Observatory; Swedish National Space Board, Stockholm University – Stockholm Observatory; Switzerland: ETH Zurich, FHNW; USA: Caltech, JPL, NHSC. B.M. acknowledges the support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. M.G. acknowledges the support received from CNES. J.R.G. and J.C. thank the Spanish MICINN for funding support through grants, AYA2009-07304 and CSD2009-00038. J.R.G. is supported by a Ramòn y Cajal research contract M.S. acknowledges support from grant No. 203 393334 from Polish MNiSW. E.H. thanks NASA for partial support of this work through the Herschel program, administered by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, which is supported by NASA. T.C.’s contribution was funded by ERC Advanced Investigator Grant GLOSTAR (247078). This paper has made extensive use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research made use of the myXCLASS program (,which accesses the CDMS ( and JPL ( molecular data bases.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
MICINN (Spain)AYA2009-07304
MICINN (Spain)CSD2009-00038
Ramón y Cajal research contractUNSPECIFIED
Polish MNiSW203 393334
NASA Herschel programUNSPECIFIED
ERC Advanced Investigator Grant GLOSTAR247078
Subject Keywords:ISM: molecules; ISM: lines and bands; ISM: individual objects: DR21(OH); astrochemistry; radiative transfer; molecular data
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20121204-103240023
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Official Citation:B. Mookerjea, G. E. Hassel, M. Gerin, T. Giesen, J. Stutzki, E. Herbst, J. H. Black, P. F. Goldsmith, K. M. Menten, J. Krełowski, M. De Luca, T. Csengeri, C. Joblin, M. Kaźmierczak, M. Schmidt, J. R. Goicoechea and J. Cernicharo A&A 546 A75 (2012) DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:35786
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:04 Dec 2012 19:31
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 23:17

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