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Sensitivity study of near-source ground motion

Aagaard, Brad T. and Hall, John F. and Heaton, Thomas H. (2000) Sensitivity study of near-source ground motion. In: 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering , Upper Hutt, New Zealand, Art. No. 0722. ISBN 9780958215435. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20121218-110709492

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Abstract

We studied the sensitivity of near-source ground motions for hypothetical events on a thrust fault (M_w 6.6 to 7.0) and a strike-slip fault (M_w 7.0 to 7.1) to five earthquake source parameters. We systematically varied the rupture speed, maximum slip rate, hypocentre location, distribution of final slip, and fault depth. We used the finite element method to discretize a homogeneous or layered half-space into an unstructured mesh to model the wave propagation in the domain surrounding the fault. Our sensitivity study of near-source ground motion indicates it is very important to include directivity effects when modelling near-source ground motion. In the thrust fault scenarios a double velocity pulse sweeps along the surface in the direction of the propagating rupture. For most of the scenarios the peak velocity, filtered to periods longer than 2.0 sec, exceeds 1.0 m/sec over an area of 100 square kilometres. In the strike-slip scenarios a complex series of pulses involving the shear wave and Rayleigh waves propagates in the direction of the rupture with the most severe motion confined to a narrow region along the fault. The peak, filtered velocity exceeds 1.0 m/sec over an area of 700 square kilometres. We found the ground motions strongly sensitive to the material properties and fault depth, moderately sensitive to the hypocentre location, rupture speed, and maximum slip rate, and relatively insensitive to the distribution of final slip. The shape of the near-source factor, N_v, from the 1997 Uniform Building Code does not correlate with the zone of severe shaking in the case of blind thrust faults, because the maximum displacements and maximum velocities tend to occur up-dip from the top of the fault.


Item Type:Book Section
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Heaton, Thomas H.0000-0003-3363-2197
Additional Information:© 2000 New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering.
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20121218-110709492
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20121218-110709492
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:36034
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:08 Feb 2013 22:45
Last Modified:13 Dec 2016 21:37

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