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Formation of sequences in the cratonic interior of North America by interaction between mantle, eustatic, and stratigraphic processes

Burgess, Peter M. and Gurnis, Michael and Moresi, Louis (1997) Formation of sequences in the cratonic interior of North America by interaction between mantle, eustatic, and stratigraphic processes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 109 (12). pp. 1515-1535. ISSN 0016-7606. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130123-111337111

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Abstract

Models integrating geodynamic and stratigraphic processes show that some gross features of Phanerozoic North American cratonic strata can be explained with dynamic topographies generated by subduction and cycles of supercontinent aggregation and dispersal. A three-dimensional finite-element model is used to calculate mantle flow beneath North America during Phanerozoic time in response to episodes of subduction at cratonic margins and two cycles of supercontinent formation and breakup. Dynamic topographies calculated by the flow models are used as input to a stratigraphic model that also includes background subsidence, eustasy, denudation, clastic and carbonate deposition, compaction, and isostasy. These models successfully reproduce aspects of the Sloss sequences; the best matches were obtained by combining two wavelengths of dynamic topography with second-order eustasy. Long-wavelength dynamic topography generates first-order stratal cyclicity. Periods of erosion were shorter when North America was over a dynamic topography low than when it was over a high. Long-wavelength dynamic topography also explains the absence of Mesozoic strata on the eastern portion of the craton. Characteristic stratal patterns are shown to result from subduction-related dynamic topography, although sensitive to sediment supply and other subsidence mechanisms. Aspects of Upper Cretaceous stratal patterns may be explained by the effects of Farallon plate subduction. Generally, strata deposited in a dynamic topography depression have low preservation potential because the topography is reversible. Thus, ancient subduction-related dynamic topography is most likely to be represented by unconformities.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1997)109<1515:FOSITC>2.3.CO;2DOIArticle
http://bulletin.geoscienceworld.org/content/109/12/1515PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Gurnis, Michael0000-0003-1704-597X
Moresi, Louis0000-0003-3685-174X
Additional Information:© 1997 Geological Society of America. Manuscript received by the Society: May 1, 1996; revised manuscript received: March 18, 1997; manuscript accepted May 3, 1997. The work was funded by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and National Science Foundation grants EAR-9496185 and EAR-9417645. We thank D. Kemp, S. Zhong, P. Allen, J. Verlander, and G. S. Robertson for helpful discussions, D. Anderson and J. Grotzinger for their comments on the manuscript, and S. Dorobek, B. Coakley, and an anonymous reviewer for thorough, thoughtful reviews. This represents contribution number 5673 of the Division of Geological and Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFEAR-9496185
NSFEAR-9417645
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences5673
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130123-111337111
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130123-111337111
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:36537
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:23 Jan 2013 21:12
Last Modified:24 Oct 2017 18:42

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