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Gene Ontology Annotations and Resources

Blake, J. A. and Chan, J. and Kishore, R. and Sternberg, P. and Van Auken, K. (2013) Gene Ontology Annotations and Resources. Nucleic Acids Research, 41 (D1). D530-D535. ISSN 0305-1048. PMCID PMC3531070. doi:10.1093/nar/gks1050.

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The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium (GOC, is a community-based bioinformatics resource that classifies gene product function through the use of structured, controlled vocabularies. Over the past year, the GOC has implemented several processes to increase the quantity, quality and specificity of GO annotations. First, the number of manual, literature-based annotations has grown at an increasing rate. Second, as a result of a new ‘phylogenetic annotation’ process, manually reviewed, homology-based annotations are becoming available for a broad range of species. Third, the quality of GO annotations has been improved through a streamlined process for, and automated quality checks of, GO annotations deposited by different annotation groups. Fourth, the consistency and correctness of the ontology itself has increased by using automated reasoning tools. Finally, the GO has been expanded not only to cover new areas of biology through focused interaction with experts, but also to capture greater specificity in all areas of the ontology using tools for adding new combinatorial terms. The GOC works closely with other ontology developers to support integrated use of terminologies. The GOC supports its user community through the use of e-mail lists, social media and web-based resources.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Chan, J.0000-0002-7259-8107
Sternberg, P.0000-0002-7699-0173
Van Auken, K.0000-0002-1706-4196
Additional Information:© 2012 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Published online 17 November 2012. The GO acknowledges the annotation effort from the annotators at: Gramene, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; PAMGO, Wells College, Aurora, NY, USA and PAMGO, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, VA, USA; AspGD, Stanford, CA, USA; CGD, Stanford, CA, USA; Sanger GeneDB, Hinxton, UK; InterPro EBI, Hinxton, UK; IntAct, EBI, Hinxton, UK; seudoCAP, British Columbia, Canada; SGN, Ithaca, NY, USA. Funding: National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) [U41HG002273 to the Gene Ontology Consortium, 1U41HG006104-03 to the European Bioinformatics Institute]; British Heart Foundation [SP/07/007/23671]. Funding for open access charge: NHGRI.
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British Heart FoundationSP/07/007/23671
National Human Genome Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:D1
PubMed Central ID:PMC3531070
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130204-141831710
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Official Citation: The Gene Ontology Consortium Gene Ontology Annotations and Resources Nucl. Acids Res. (2013) 41(D1): D530-D535 first published online November 17, 2012 doi:10.1093/nar/gks1050
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:36766
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Feb 2013 00:43
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 23:24

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