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Cosmological Constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected Clusters with X-Ray Observations in the First 178 deg^2 of the South Pole Telescope Survey

Benson, B. A. and Lueker, M. and Padin, S. and Shirokoff, E. and Vieira, J. D. (2013) Cosmological Constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected Clusters with X-Ray Observations in the First 178 deg^2 of the South Pole Telescope Survey. Astrophysical Journal, 763 (2). Art. No. 147. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We use measurements from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster survey in combination with X-ray measurements to constrain cosmological parameters. We present a statistical method that fits for the scaling relations of the SZ and X-ray cluster observables with mass while jointly fitting for cosmology. The method is generalizable to multiple cluster observables, and self-consistently accounts for the effects of the cluster selection and uncertainties in cluster mass calibration on the derived cosmological constraints. We apply this method to a data set consisting of an SZ-selected catalog of 18 galaxy clusters at z > 0.3 from the first 178 deg^2 of the 2500 deg^2 SPT-SZ survey, with 14 clusters having X-ray observations from either Chandra or XMM-Newton. Assuming a spatially flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find the SPT cluster sample constrains σ_8(Ω_m /0.25)^(0.30) = 0.785 ± 0.037. In combination with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum from the SPT and the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data, the SPT cluster sample constrains σ_8 = 0.795 ± 0.016 and Ω_m = 0.255 ± 0.016, a factor of 1.5 improvement on each parameter over the CMB data alone. We consider several extensions beyond the ΛCDM model by including the following as free parameters: the dark energy equation of state (w), the sum of the neutrino masses (Σm ν), the effective number of relativistic species (N_(eff)), and a primordial non-Gaussianity (f_(NL)). We find that adding the SPT cluster data significantly improves the constraints on w and Σm_ν beyond those found when using measurements of the CMB, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble constant. Considering each extension independently, we best constrain w = –0.973 ± 0.063 and the sum of neutrino masses Σm_ν < 0.28 eV at 95% confidence, a factor of 1.25 and 1.4 improvement, respectively, over the constraints without clusters. Assuming a ΛCDM model with a free N_(eff) and Σm_ν, we measure N_(eff) = 3.91 ± 0.42 and constrain Σm_ν < 0.63 eV at 95% confidence. We also use the SPT cluster sample to constrain f_(NL) = –220 ± 317, consistent with zero primordial non-Gaussianity. Finally, we discuss the current systematic limitations due to the cluster mass calibration, and future improvements for the recently completed 2500 deg^2 SPT-SZ survey. The survey has detected ~500 clusters with a median redshift of ~0.5 and a median mass of ~2.3 × 10^(14) M_☉ h^(–1) and, when combined with an improved cluster mass calibration and existing external cosmological data sets will significantly improve constraints on w.

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Benson, B. A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2011 December 22; accepted 2012 December 17; published 2013 January 17. The South Pole Telescope program is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant ANT-0638937. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-0114422 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Additional data were obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Support for X-ray analysis was provided by NASA through Chandra Award Numbers 12800071, 12800088, and 13800883 issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Optical imaging data from the Blanco 4 m at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatories (programs 2005B-0043, 2009B-0400, 2010A-0441, 2010B-0598) and spectroscopic observations from VLT programs 086.A-0741 and 286.A-5021 and Gemini program GS-2009B-Q-16 were included in this work. We acknowledge the use of the Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis (LAMBDA). Support for LAMBDA is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science. Galaxy cluster research at Harvard is supported by NSF grant AST-1009012. Galaxy cluster research at SAO is supported in part by NSF grants AST-1009649 and MRI-0723073. The McGill group acknowledges funding from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canada Research Chairs program, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. X-ray research at the CfA is supported through NASA Contract NAS 8-03060. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. The Munich group acknowledges support from the Excellence Cluster Universe and the DFG research program TR33. R.J.F. is supported by a Clay Fellowship. B.A.B. is supported by a KICP Fellowship, M.B. acknowledges support from contract 2834-MIT-SAO-4018 from the Pennsylvania State University to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. M.D. acknowledges support from an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, W.F. and C.J. acknowledge support from the Smithsonian Institution, and B.S. acknowledges support from the Brinson Foundation. Facilities: Blanco (MOSAIC) - Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's 4 meter Blanco Telescope, CXO (ACIS) - Chandra X-ray Observatory satellite, Gemini:South (GMOS) - Gemini South Telescope, Magellan:Baade (IMACS) - Magellan I Walter Baade Telescope, Magellan:Clay (LDSS3) - Magellan II Landon Clay Telescope, Spitzer (IRAC) - Spitzer Space Telescope satellite, SPT - South Pole Telescope, XMM (EPIC) - Newton X-Ray Multimirror Mission satellite
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Research Chairs programUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIAR)UNSPECIFIED
Clay FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Kavli Institute for Cosmological PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Pennsylvania State University2834-MIT-SAO-4018
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Smithsonian InstitutionUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)TR33 Dark Universe
Subject Keywords:cosmic background radiation; cosmology: observations; galaxies: clusters: general; large-scale structure of universe
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130222-154859231
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Official Citation:Cosmological Constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected Clusters with X-Ray Observations in the First 178 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope Survey B. A. Benson, T. de Haan, J. P. Dudley, C. L. Reichardt, K. A. Aird, K. Andersson, R. Armstrong, M. L. N. Ashby, M. Bautz, M. Bayliss, G. Bazin, L. E. Bleem, M. Brodwin, J. E. Carlstrom, C. L. Chang, H. M. Cho, A. Clocchiatti, T. M. Crawford, A. T. Crites, S. Desai, M. A. Dobbs, R. J. Foley, W. R. Forman, E. M. George, M. D. Gladders, A. H. Gonzalez, N. W. Halverson, N. Harrington, F. W. High, G. P. Holder, W. L. Holzapfel, S. Hoover, J. D. Hrubes, C. Jones, M. Joy, R. Keisler, L. Knox, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Liu, M. Lueker, D. Luong-Van, A. Mantz, D. P. Marrone, M. McDonald, J. J. McMahon, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, T. E. Montroy, S. S. Murray, T. Natoli, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, A. Rest, J. Ruel, J. E. Ruhl, B. R. Saliwanchik, A. Saro, J. T. Sayre, K. K. Schaffer, L. Shaw, E. Shirokoff, J. Song, H. G. Spieler, B. Stalder, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, K. Story, C. W. Stubbs, R. Suhada, A. van Engelen, K. Vanderlinde, J. D. Vieira, A. Vikhlinin, R. Williamson, O. Zahn, and A. Zenteno doi:10.1088/0004-637X/763/2/147
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:37093
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:30 Sep 2015 16:30
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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