A Caltech Library Service

Modeling Steel Frame Buildings in Three Dimensions. I: Panel Zone and Plastic Hinge Beam Elements

Krishnan, Swaminathan and Hall, John F. (2006) Modeling Steel Frame Buildings in Three Dimensions. I: Panel Zone and Plastic Hinge Beam Elements. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 132 (4). pp. 345-358. ISSN 0733-9399. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2006)132:4(345).

[img] PDF - Published Version
Restricted to Caltech community only
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


A procedure for efficient three-dimensional nonlinear time-history analysis of steel framed buildings is derived. It incorporates two types of nonlinear beam elements—the plastic hinge type and the elastofiber type—and nonlinear panel zone elements to model yielding and strain-hardening in moment-frames. Floors and roofs of buildings are modeled using 4-node elastic diaphragm elements. The procedure utilizes an iteration strategy applied to an implicit time-integration scheme to solve the nonlinear equations of motion at each time step. Geometric nonlinearity is included. An overview of the procedure and the theories for the panel zone and the plastic hinge elements are presented in this paper. The theory for the elastofiber element along with illustrative examples are presented in a companion paper. The plastic hinge beam element consists of two nodes at which biaxial flexural yielding is permitted, leading to the formation of plastic hinges. Elastic rotational springs are connected across the plastic hinge locations to model strain-hardening. Axial yielding is also permitted. The panel zone element consists of two orthogonal panels forming a cruciform section. Each panel may yield and strain-harden in shear.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Krishnan, Swaminathan0000-0002-2594-1523
Hall, John F.0000-0002-7863-5060
Additional Information:© 2006 ASCE. Submitted: 08 January 2004; Accepted: 30 June 2005; Published: 27 February 2012.
Subject Keywords:Framed structures, Steel frames, Nonlinear analysis, Plastic hinges, Beams, Earthquakes, Three-dimensional analysis
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130311-091205741
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:37432
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 Mar 2013 21:22
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 23:28

Repository Staff Only: item control page