A Caltech Library Service

The tetravalent manganese oxides: identification, hydration, and structural relationships by infrared spectroscopy

Potter, Russell M. and Rossman, George R. (1979) The tetravalent manganese oxides: identification, hydration, and structural relationships by infrared spectroscopy. American Mineralogist, 64 (11-12). pp. 1199-1218. ISSN 0003-004X.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


A compilation of the infrared powder absorption spectra of most naturally occurring tetravalent and trivalent manganese oxides is presented which is intended to serve as a basis for the spectroscopic identification of these minerals in both ordered and disordered varieties, including those too disordered for X-ray diffraction studies. A variety of synthetic manganese oxides are also included for comparison to the natural phases. The samples include: aurorite, birnessite, braunite, buserite, chalcophanite, coronadite, cryptomelane, groutite, hausmannite, hollandite, lithiophorite, maoganite, manganese(Ill) manganate(IV), manganosite, manjiroite, marokite, nsutite, partridgeite, pyrolusite, quenselite, rancieite, ramsdellite, romanechite, sodium manganese(Il,III) manganate(IV), todorokite, and woodruffite. The spectra indicate that well-ordered water occurs in ramsdellite, chalcophanite, and most romanechites. Disordered water is observed in the spectra of nsutite, hollandites, birnessite, todorokite, buserite, and rancieite. The infrared spectra of well-ordered todorokite, birnessite and rancieite differ which indicates that they possess different structures and should be regarded as distinct mineral species. Much variation is observed in the spectra of pyrolusites, nsutites, birnessites, and todorokites which is interpreted as arising from structural disorder. Spectral trends suggest that todorokite, birnessite and rancieite have layered structures.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Rossman, George R.0000-0002-4571-6884
Additional Information:© 1979 Mineralogical Society of America. Manuscript received, February 1 2, 1979; accepted for publication, June 25, 1979. We thank the following for providing samples for this study: J. S. White, Jr., Smithsonian Institution; C. G. Cunningham, U. S. Geological Survey; A. R. Kampf, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History; R. G. Burns and V. M. Burns, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; A. J. Bauman, Jet propulsion Laboratory; G. W. Brindley, Pennsylvania State University; A. S. Corey, Pasadena City College; V. Morgan, Boron, California; L. Dalbec, Ridgecrest, California; and R. Currier, Arcadia, California. A small portion of the funding for this work was provided by the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation and the John A. McCarthy Foundation. Helpful critical reviews were provided by R. G. Burns and R. Giovanoli, Berne.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
L. S. B. Leakey FoundationUNSPECIFIED
John A. McCarthy FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:11-12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130326-144600886
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:37634
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Mar 2013 23:16
Last Modified:26 Nov 2019 11:15

Repository Staff Only: item control page