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Empirical Predictions for (Sub-)millimeter Line and Continuum Deep Fields

da Cunha, Elisabete and Walter, Fabian and Decarli, Roberto and Bertoldi, Frank and Carilli, Chris and Daddi, Emanuele and Elbaz, David and Ivison, Rob J. and Maiolino, Roberto and Riechers, Dominik and Rix, Hans-Walter and Sargent, Mark and Smail, Ian and Weiss, Axel (2013) Empirical Predictions for (Sub-)millimeter Line and Continuum Deep Fields. Astrophysical Journal, 765 (1). Art. No. 9. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/9.

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Modern (sub-)millimeter/radio interferometers such as ALMA, JVLA, and the PdBI successor NOEMA will enable us to measure the dust and molecular gas emission from galaxies that have luminosities lower than the Milky Way, out to high redshifts and with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. This will provide new constraints on the star formation properties and gas reservoir in galaxies throughout cosmic times through dedicated deep field campaigns targeting the CO/[C II] lines and dust continuum emission in the (sub-)millimeter regime. In this paper, we present empirical predictions for such line and continuum deep fields. We base these predictions on the deepest available optical/near-infrared Advanced Camera for Surveys and NICMOS data on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (over an area of about 12 arcmin^2). Using a physically motivated spectral energy distribution model, we fit the observed optical/near-infrared emission of 13,099 galaxies with redshifts up to z = 5, and obtain median-likelihood estimates of their stellar mass, star formation rate, dust attenuation, and dust luminosity. We combine the attenuated stellar spectra with a library of infrared emission models spanning a wide range of dust temperatures to derive statistical constraints on the dust emission in the infrared and (sub-)millimeter which are consistent with the observed optical/near-infrared emission in terms of energy balance. This allows us to estimate, for each galaxy, the (sub-)millimeter continuum flux densities in several ALMA, PdBI/NOEMA, and JVLA bands. As a consistency check, we verify that the 850 μm number counts and extragalactic background light derived using our predictions are consistent with previous observations. Using empirical relations between the observed CO/[C II] line luminosities and the infrared luminosity of star-forming galaxies, we infer the luminosity of the CO(1-0) and [C II] lines from the estimated infrared luminosity of each galaxy in our sample. We then predict the luminosities of higher CO transition lines CO(2-1) to CO(7-6) based on two extreme gas excitation scenarios: quiescent (Milky Way) and starburst (M82). We use our predictions to discuss possible deep field strategies with ALMA. The predictions presented in this study will serve as a direct benchmark for future deep field campaigns in the (sub-)millimeter regime.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
da Cunha, Elisabete0000-0001-9759-4797
Walter, Fabian0000-0003-4793-7880
Decarli, Roberto0000-0002-2662-8803
Bertoldi, Frank0000-0002-1707-1775
Carilli, Chris0000-0001-6647-3861
Daddi, Emanuele0000-0002-3331-9590
Elbaz, David0000-0002-7631-647X
Ivison, Rob J.0000-0001-5118-1313
Riechers, Dominik0000-0001-9585-1462
Rix, Hans-Walter0000-0003-4996-9069
Sargent, Mark0000-0003-1033-9684
Smail, Ian0000-0003-3037-257X
Weiss, Axel0000-0003-4678-3939
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2012 June 26; accepted 2013 January 2; published 2013 February 11. We thank the anonymous referee for comments that helped improve the quality and clarity of this paper. We also thank Vassilis Charmandaris and Eric Murphy for insightful comments on the manuscript. E.d.C. acknowledges funding through the ERC grant “Cosmic Dawn.” R.D. acknowledges funding from Germany’s national research center for aeronautics and space (DLR, project FKZ 50 OR 1104). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)FKZ 50 OR 1104
Subject Keywords:dust, extinction; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: ISM; galaxies: statistics; submillimeter: galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130402-085603111
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Empirical Predictions for (Sub-)millimeter Line and Continuum Deep Fields Elisabete da Cunha et al. 2013 ApJ 765 9
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:37712
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:02 Apr 2013 16:28
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 23:30

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