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Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. III. Analysis of the First 16 Months of Data

Batalha, Natalie M. and Ciardi, David R. and Gautier, Thomas N., III and Clarke, Bruce D. and Howard, Andrew W. (2013) Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. III. Analysis of the First 16 Months of Data. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 204 (2). Art. No. 24. ISSN 0067-0049. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130403-085812058

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Abstract

New transiting planet candidates are identified in 16 months (2009 May-2010 September) of data from the Kepler spacecraft. Nearly 5000 periodic transit-like signals are vetted against astrophysical and instrumental false positives yielding 1108 viable new planet candidates, bringing the total count up to over 2300. Improved vetting metrics are employed, contributing to higher catalog reliability. Most notable is the noise-weighted robust averaging of multi-quarter photo-center offsets derived from difference image analysis that identifies likely background eclipsing binaries. Twenty-two months of photometry are used for the purpose of characterizing each of the candidates. Ephemerides (transit epoch, T_0, and orbital period, P) are tabulated as well as the products of light curve modeling: reduced radius (R_P/R_★), reduced semimajor axis (d/R_★), and impact parameter (b). The largest fractional increases are seen for the smallest planet candidates (201% for candidates smaller than 2 R_⊕ compared to 53% for candidates larger than 2 R_⊕) and those at longer orbital periods (124% for candidates outside of 50 day orbits versus 86% for candidates inside of 50 day orbits). The gains are larger than expected from increasing the observing window from 13 months (Quarters 1-5) to 16 months (Quarters 1-6) even in regions of parameter space where one would have expected the previous catalogs to be complete. Analyses of planet frequencies based on previous catalogs will be affected by such incompleteness. The fraction of all planet candidate host stars with multiple candidates has grown from 17% to 20%, and the paucity of short-period giant planets in multiple systems is still evident. The progression toward smaller planets at longer orbital periods with each new catalog release suggests that Earth-size planets in the habitable zone are forthcoming if, indeed, such planets are abundant.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/204/2/24DOIArticle
http://iopscience.iop.org/0067-0049/204/2/24/PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2012 February 27; accepted 2012 November 14; published 2013 February 5. The authors express their sincere gratitude for the time and attention that both referees gave to this manuscript. In particular, we thank Dr. Scott Gaudi who offered a particularly thorough reading and valuable comments that significantly improved the manuscript. We were very fortunate to have benefitted from his expertise. Funding for this Discovery mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. This material is based on work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant NNX08AR04G issued through the Kepler Participating Scientist Program. Facility: Kepler
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANNX08AR04G
Subject Keywords:catalogs; eclipses; planetary systems; space vehicles; techniques: photometric
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130403-085812058
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130403-085812058
Official Citation:Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. III. Analysis of the First 16 Months of Data Natalie M. Batalha et al. 2013 ApJS 204 24
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:37737
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:03 Apr 2013 16:13
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 04:50

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