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Operation of a titanium nitride superconducting microresonator detector in the nonlinear regime

Swenson, L. J. and Day, P. K. and Eom, B. H. and Leduc, H. G. and Llombart, N. and McKenney, C. M. and Noroozian, O. and Zmuidzinas, J. (2013) Operation of a titanium nitride superconducting microresonator detector in the nonlinear regime. Journal of Applied Physics, 113 (10). Art. No. 104501. ISSN 0021-8979. doi:10.1063/1.4794808.

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If driven sufficiently strongly, superconducting microresonators exhibit nonlinear behavior including response bifurcation. This behavior can arise from a variety of physical mechanisms including heating effects, grain boundaries or weak links, vortex penetration, or through the intrinsic nonlinearity of the kinetic inductance. Although microresonators used for photon detection are usually driven fairly hard in order to optimize their sensitivity, most experiments to date have not explored detector performance beyond the onset of bifurcation. Here, we present measurements of a lumped-element superconducting microresonator designed for use as a far-infrared detector and operated deep into the nonlinear regime. The 1 GHz resonator was fabricated from a 22 nm thick titanium nitride film with a critical temperature of 2 K and a normal-state resistivity of 100 μΩ cm. We measured the response of the device when illuminated with 6.4 pW optical loading using microwave readout powers that ranged from the low-power, linear regime to 18 dB beyond the onset of bifurcation. Over this entire range, the nonlinear behavior is well described by a nonlinear kinetic inductance. The best noise-equivalent power of 2×10^(−16) W/Hz^(1/2) at 10 Hz was measured at the highest readout power, and represents a ∼10 fold improvement compared with operating below the onset of bifurcation.

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McKenney, C. M.0000-0003-4917-4872
Additional Information:© 2013 American Institute of Physics. Received 26 November 2012; accepted 22 February 2013; published online 8 March 2013. The authors wish to thank Teun Klapwijk and David Moore for useful discussions relating to this work. This work was supported in part by the Keck Institute for Space Science, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The devices used in this work were fabricated at the JPL Microdevices Laboratory. L. Swenson acknowledges the support from the NASA Postdoctoral Program. L. Swenson and C. McKenney acknowledge funding from the Keck Institute for Space Science.
Group:Keck Institute for Space Studies
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)UNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:bifurcation; electrical resistivity; grain boundaries; infrared detectors; microcavities; micromechanical resonators; microsensors; mixed state; superconducting cavity resonators; superconducting photodetectors; superconducting transition temperature; thin film sensors; titanium compounds; UHF resonators
Issue or Number:10
Classification Code:PACS: 85.25.Pb; 85.60.Gz; 85.85.+j; 07.10.Cm
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130424-104506268
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Official Citation:Operation of a titanium nitride superconducting microresonator detector in the nonlinear regime L. J. Swenson, P. K. Day, B. H. Eom, H. G. Leduc, N. Llombart, C. M. McKenney, O. Noroozian, and J. Zmuidzinas, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 104501 (2013), DOI:10.1063/1.4794808
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:38093
Deposited On:24 Apr 2013 19:39
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 23:33

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