A Caltech Library Service

Beaming in gamma-ray bursts: evidence for a standard energy reservoir

Frail, D. A. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Sari, R. and Djorgovski, S. G. and Bloom, J. S. and Galama, T. J. and Reichart, D. E. and Berger, E. and Harrison, F. A. and Price, P. A. and Yost, S. A. and Diercks, A. and Goodrich, R. W. and Chaffee, F. (2001) Beaming in gamma-ray bursts: evidence for a standard energy reservoir. Astrophysical Journal, 562 (1). L55-L58. ISSN 0004-637X.

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We present a comprehensive sample of all gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows with known distances, and we derive their conical opening angles based on observed broadband breaks in their light curves. Within the framework of this conical jet model, we correct for the geometry and we find that the gamma-ray energy release is narrowly clustered around 5 × 10^(50) ergs. We draw three conclusions. First, the central engines of GRBs release energies that are comparable to ordinary supernovae. Second, the broad distribution in fluence and luminosity for GRBs is largely the result of a wide variation of opening angles. Third, only a small fraction of GRBs are visible to a given observer, and the true GRB rate is several hundred times larger than the observed rate.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Sari, R.0000-0002-1084-3656
Djorgovski, S. G.0000-0002-0603-3087
Bloom, J. S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Reichart, D. E.0000-0002-5060-3673
Berger, E.0000-0002-9392-9681
Harrison, F. A.0000-0003-2992-8024
Additional Information:© 2001 American Astronomical Society. Received 2001 July 6; accepted 2001 October 17; published 2001 November 1. Our research is supported by NASA and NSF. We thank various organizations for fellowships to J. S. B. (Fannie & John Hertz Foundation), A. D. (Millikan Fellow), T. J. G. (Fairchild Fellow), D. E. R. (Hubble Fellow), and R. S. (Fairchild Senior Fellow). The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. We thank the staff at the Keck and Palomar Observatories for their expert help during many observing runs. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated by the California Association for Research in Astronomy, a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Fannie and John Hertz FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Robert A. Millikan FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:gamma rays: bursts; ISM: jets and outflows; shock waves
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130429-112326246
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Beaming in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Evidence for a Standard Energy Reservoir D. A. Frail et al. 2001 ApJ 562 L55
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:38158
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:29 Apr 2013 20:50
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

Repository Staff Only: item control page