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The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT Instrument

Bischoff, C. and Cleary, K. and Reeves, R. and Gaier, T. and Pearson, T. J. and Radford, S. J. E. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Richards, J. L. and Sheperd, M. C. and Williamson, R. (2013) The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT Instrument. Astrophysical Journal, 768 (1). Art. No. 9. ISSN 0004-637X. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130603-100301151

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Abstract

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the cosmic microwave background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales(~1°). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters that form the focal planes use a compact design based on high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 μKs^(1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 μKs^(1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range ℓ ~ 25-975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance, and sources of systematic error of the instrument.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/768/1/9DOIUNSPECIFIED
http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/768/1/9PublisherUNSPECIFIED
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Readhead, A. C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2012 July 31; accepted 2013 February 8; published 2013 April 9. Support for the QUIET instrument and operation comes through the NSF cooperative agreement AST-0506648. Support was also provided by NSF awards PHY-0855887, PHY-0355328, AST-0448909, AST-1010016, and PHY-0551142; KAKENHI 20244041, 20740158, and 21111002; PRODEX C90284; a KIPAC Enterprise grant; and by the Strategic Alliance for the Implementation of New Technologies (SAINT). This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Some work was performed on the Joint Fermilab-KICP Supercomputing Cluster, supported by grants from Fermilab, the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, and the University of Chicago. Some work was performed on the Titan Cluster, owned and maintained by the University of Oslo and NOTUR (the Norwegian High Performance Computing Consortium), and on the Central Computing System, owned and operated by the Computing Research Center at KEK. Portions of this work were performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and California Institute of Technology, operating under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Q-band modules were developed using funding from the JPL R&TD program. We acknowledge the Northrop Grumman Corporation for collaboration in the development and fabrication of HEMT-based cryogenic temperature-compatible MMICs. C.D. acknowledges an STFC Advanced Fellowship and an ERC IRG grant under FP7. R.B. acknowledges support from CONICYT project Basal PFB-06 and ALMA-Conicyt 31070015. A.D.M. acknowledges a Sloan foundation fellowship. H.K.E. acknowledges an ERC Starting Grant under FP7. PWV measurements were provided by the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). We thank CONICYT for granting permission to operate within the Chajnantor Scientific Preserve in Chile, and ALMA for providing site infrastructure support. Field operations were based at the Don Esteban facility run by Astro-Norte. We are particularly indebted to the engineers and technician who maintained and operated the telescope: José Cortés, Cristobal Jara, Freddy Muñoz, and Carlos Verdugo. In addition, we acknowledge the following people for their assistance in the instrument design, construction, commissioning, operation, and in data analysis: Augusto Gutierrez Aitken, Colin Baines, Phil Bannister, Hannah Barker, Matthew R. Becker, Alex Blein, April Campbell, Anushya Chandra, Sea Moon Cho, Joelle Cooperrider, Mike Crofts, Emma Curry, Maire Daly, Fritz Dejongh, Joy Didier, Greg Dooley, Hans Eide, Will Grainger, Jonathon Goh, Peter Hamlington, TakeoHiguchi, Seth Hillbrand, Ben Hooberman, Kathryn D. Huff, Norm Jarosik, Eiichiro Komatsu, Jostein Kristiansen, Donna Kubik, Richard Lai, David Leibovitch, Kelly Lepo, Siqi Li,MarthaMalin,Mark McCulloch, Oliver Montes, David Moore, Ian O’Dwyer, Gustavo Orellana, Stephen Osborne, Stephen Padin, Felipe Pedreros, Ashley Perko, Alan Robinson, Jacklyn Sanders, Dale Sanford, Yunior Savon, Mary Soria, Alex Sugarbaker, David Sutton, Matias Vidal, Liza Volkova, Stephanie Xenos, Octavio Zapata, and Mark Zaskowski.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFAST-0506648
NSFPHY-0855887
NSFPHY-0355328
NSFAST-0448909
NSFAST-1010016
NSFPHY-0551142
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20244041
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20740158
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)21111002
European Space Agency (ESA)PRODEX C90284
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and CosmologyUNSPECIFIED
Strategic Alliance for the Implementation of New Technologies (SAINT)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
FermilabUNSPECIFIED
Kavli Institute for Cosmological PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
JPL Research and Technology Development ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
Basal-CATAPFB-06/2007
ALMA-CONICYT project31070015
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:cosmic background radiation; cosmology: observations; instrumentation: detectors; instrumentation: polarimeters; telescopes
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130603-100301151
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130603-100301151
Official Citation:The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT Instrument C. Bischoff, A. Brizius, I. Buder, Y. Chinone, K. Cleary, R. N. Dumoulin, A. Kusaka, R. Monsalve, S. K. Næss, L. B. Newburgh, G. Nixon, R. Reeves, K. M. Smith, K. Vanderlinde, I. K. Wehus, M. Bogdan, R. Bustos, S. E. Church, R. Davis, C. Dickinson, H. K. Eriksen, T. Gaier, J. O. Gundersen, M. Hasegawa, M. Hazumi, C. Holler, K. M. Huffenberger, W. A. Imbriale, K. Ishidoshiro, M. E. Jones, P. Kangaslahti, D. J. Kapner, C. R. Lawrence, E. M. Leitch, M. Limon, J. J. McMahon, A. D. Miller, M. Nagai, H. Nguyen, T. J. Pearson, L. Piccirillo, S. J. E. Radford, A. C. S. Readhead, J. L. Richards, D. Samtleben, M. Seiffert, M. C. Shepherd, S. T. Staggs, O. Tajima, K. L. Thompson, R. Williamson, B. Winstein, E. J. Wollack, and J. T. L. Zwart doi:10.1088/0004-637X/768/1/9
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:38751
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:03 Jun 2013 17:39
Last Modified:03 Mar 2020 13:01

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