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Fault kinematics and surface deformation across a releasing bend during the 2010 M_W 7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake revealed by differential LiDAR and cadastral surveying

Duffy, Brendan and Quigley, Mark and Barrell, David J. A. and Van Dissen, Russ and Stahl, Timothy and Leprince, Sébastien and McInnes, Craig and Bilderback, Eric (2013) Fault kinematics and surface deformation across a releasing bend during the 2010 M_W 7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake revealed by differential LiDAR and cadastral surveying. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 125 (3-4). pp. 420-431. ISSN 0016-7606. doi:10.1130/B30753.1.

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Dextral slip at the western end of the east-west–striking Greendale fault during the 2010 M_W 7.1 Darfield earthquake transferred onto a northwest-trending segment, across an apparent transtensional zone, here named the Waterford releasing bend. We used detailed surface mapping, differential analysis of pre- and postearthquake light detection and ranging (LiDAR), and property boundary (cadastral) resurveying to produce high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of coseismic ground-surface displacements across the Waterford releasing bend. Our results indicate that the change in orientation on the Greendale fault incorporates elements of a large-scale releasing bend (from the viewpoint of westward motion on the south side of the fault) as well as a smaller-scale restraining stepover (from the viewpoint of southeastward motion on the north side of the fault). These factors result in the Waterford releasing bend exhibiting a decrease in displacement to near zero at the change in strike, and the presence within the overall releasing bend of a nested, localized restraining stepover with contractional bulging. The exceptional detail of surface deformation and kinematics obtained from this contemporary surface-rupture event illustrates the value of multimethod investigations. Our data provide insights into strike-slip fault bend kinematics, and into the potentially subtle but important structures that may be present at bends on historic and prehistoric rupture traces.

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Leprince, Sébastien0000-0003-4555-8975
Additional Information:© 2013 Geological Society of America. Received 24 June 2012; Revision received 21 October 2012; Accepted 7 November 2012. This study was funded by the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, and by the New Zealand Earthquake Commission (EQC). B. Duffy was supported by a New Zealand Tertiary Education Commission Top Achiever Scholarship. S. Leprince was partly supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. We thank J. Beavan for global positioning system survey data, landowners for field access, N. Carson, J. Campbell, S. Hornblow, and A. Mackenzie for field assistance, and Environment Canterbury for LiDAR data. We are grateful to Timothy Little, Paul Mann, John Walsh, James Dolan, and Richard Norris for thoughtful reviews that greatly improved the manuscript.
Group:Keck Institute for Space Studies
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of Canterbury Department of Geological SciencesUNSPECIFIED
New Zealand Earthquake Commission (EQC)UNSPECIFIED
New Zealand Tertiary Education Commission Top Achiever ScholarshipUNSPECIFIED
Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)UNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:3-4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130607-154603900
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:38865
Deposited On:10 Jun 2013 14:44
Last Modified:09 Nov 2021 23:40

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