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On the origin of terpenes in symbiotic associations between marine invertebrates and algae (zooxanthellae). Culture studies and an application of ^(13)C/^(12)C isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

Kokke, W. C. M. C. and Epstein, Samuel and Look, Sally A. and Rau, Greg H. and Fenical, William and Djerassi, Carl (1984) On the origin of terpenes in symbiotic associations between marine invertebrates and algae (zooxanthellae). Culture studies and an application of ^(13)C/^(12)C isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 259 (13). pp. 8168-8173. ISSN 0021-9258. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130701-091043346

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Abstract

^(13)C/^(12)C ratios of sets of compounds, algal sterols and terpenes, isolated from dinoflagellate symbiont (zooxanthellae)-bearing soft corals and gorgonians were determined. In most cases, a significant difference was found between the δ^(13)C values of the terpenes and of the algal sterols from the same set, the algal sterols containing less ^(13)C than the terpenes. These results can only be explained if terpenes are synthesized by the host. Cultured zooxanthellae, isolated from symbiotic associations, do not make terpenes. Algal sterols of the various sets do not all have the same δ^(13)C value: average values range from -18.2 to -24.3‰. A consistent difference of about 7‰ in the δ^(13)C values of sterols of cultured symbionts isolated from two of the gorgonians was found. This has potential applications for the taxonomy of zooxanthellae, most of which are believed by some specialists to be one discrete species.


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Additional Information:© 1984 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Received for publication, December 12, 1983. Research in Stanford was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant GM 06840. Research at Caltech was supported by National Science Foundation Grant EAR 78-16873. Research at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography was supported by the National Science Foundation, Chemistry Division, under Grant CHE-81-11907 (to W. F.). The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact. The idea for this work was the result of discussions with Dr. Gerold Wefer, University of Kiel, who told W. C. M. C. K. about his analyses of the carbonate of the tests of forams, and the influence of symbiosis on the isotopic composition of these tests. The authors are also indebted to Elenor Dent, Joe Roth, and Ruth Records for technical assistance; to Professor J. M. Hayes, Indiana University, Bloomington, for helpful comments; to Dr. Neal Blair, NASA-Ames Research Center, for the same reason and for a copy of a manuscript very relevant to this work; to James R. Lance, who isolated and cultured the zooxanthellae; to Professor John Coll, University of Townsville, for a sample of furanodiene; to Dr. Maury Bandurraga, for samples of pukalide, lophotoxin, and furanodiene; to Professor D. John Faulkner, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for a sample of briarein B; to Professor Yoel Kashman, University of Tel Aviv, for the sterols of X. macrospiculatu and a sample of xeniaphyllenol; to Dr. J. C. Braekman, Free University of Brussels, for a gift of C. imbricata; and to Professor Bruce M. Howard, San Francisco State University, for concinndiol and the sterol fractions of L. snyderae. The first two analyses were performed in the laboratory of Professor Isaac R. Kaplan, University of California at Los Angeles.
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Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHGM 06840
NSFEAR 78-16873
NSF Chemistry DivisionCHE-81-11907
Issue or Number:13
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130701-091043346
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130701-091043346
Official Citation: W C Kokke, S Epstein, S A Look, G H Rau, W Fenical, and C Djerassi On the origin of terpenes in symbiotic associations between marine invertebrates and algae (zooxanthellae). Culture studies and an application of 13C/12C isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J. Biol. Chem. 1984 259: 8168-8173.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:39154
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Jul 2013 23:18
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 05:04

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