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CFHTLenS: higher order galaxy–mass correlations probed by galaxy–galaxy–galaxy lensing

Simon, P. and Erben, T. and Schneider, P. and Heymans, C. and Hildebrandt, H. and Hoekstra, H. and Kitching, T. D. and Mellier, Y. and Miller, L. and van Waerbeke, L. and Bonnett, C. and Coupon, J. and Fu, L. and Hudson, M. J. and Kuijken, K. and Rowe, B. T. P. and Schrabback, T. and Semboloni, E. and Velander, M. (2013) CFHTLenS: higher order galaxy–mass correlations probed by galaxy–galaxy–galaxy lensing. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 430 (3). pp. 2476-2498. ISSN 0035-8711.

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We present the first direct measurement of the galaxy–matter bispectrum as a function of galaxy luminosity, stellar mass and type of spectral energy distribution (SED). Our analysis uses a galaxy–galaxy–galaxy lensing technique (G3L), on angular scales between 9 arcsec and 50 arcmin, to quantify (i) the excess surface mass density around galaxy pairs (excess mass hereafter) and (ii) the excess shear–shear correlations around single galaxies, both of which yield a measure of two types of galaxy–matter bispectra. We apply our method to the state-of-the-art Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), spanning 154 square degrees. This survey allows us to detect a significant change of the bispectra with lens properties. Measurements for lens populations with distinct redshift distributions become comparable by a newly devised normalization technique. That will also aid future comparisons to other surveys or simulations. A significant dependence of the normalized G3L statistics on luminosity within −23 ≤ Mr ≤ −18 and stellar mass within 5 × 10^9 M_⊙ ≤ M* ≤ 2 × 10^(11) M_⊙ is found (h = 0.73). Both bispectra exhibit a stronger signal for more luminous lenses or those with higher stellar mass (up to a factor of 2–3). This is accompanied by a steeper equilateral bispectrum for more luminous or higher stellar mass lenses for the excess mass. Importantly, we find the excess mass to be very sensitive to galaxy type as recently predicted with semi-analytic galaxy models: luminous (M_r < −21) late-type galaxies show no detectable signal, while all excess mass detected for luminous galaxies seems to be associated with early-type galaxies. We also present the first observational constraints on third-order stochastic galaxy biasing parameters.

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Additional Information:© 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2013 January 9. Received 2013 January 9; in original form 2012 November 8. First published online: February 7, 2013. We thank StefanHilbert for useful discussions and Hananeh Saghiha for verifying our correlator code output with hers on simulated data. This work is based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/IRFU, at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France and the University of Hawaii. This research used the facilities of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency. We thank the CFHT staff for successfully conducting the CFHTLS observations and in particular Jean-Charles Cuillandre and Eugene Magnier for the continuous improvement of the instrument calibration and the ELIXIR detrended data that we used. We also thank TERAPIX for the quality assessment and validation of individual exposures during the CFHTLS data acquisition period and Emmanuel Bertin for developing some of the software used in this study. CFHTLenS data processing was made possible thanks to significant computing support from the NSERC Research Tools and Instruments grant programme, and to HPC specialist Ovidiu Toader. The early stages of the CFHTLenS project were made possible thanks to the support of the European Commissions Marie Curie Research Training Network DUEL (MRTN-CT-2006-036133) which directly supported members of the CFHTLenS team (CB, LF, HH, BTPR, PS, MV) between 2007 and 2011 in addition to providing travel support and expenses for team meetings. TE is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through project ER 327/3-1 and, with PS and PS, by the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR33 – ‘The Dark Universe’. CH, HH and BTPR acknowledge support from the European Research Council under the EC FP7 grant numbers 240185 (CH), 279396 (HH+ES) and 240672 (BR). LVW acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIfAR, Cosmology and Gravity programme). HH is supported by the Marie Curie IOF 252760, a CITA National Fellowship and the DFG grant Hi 1495/2-1. HH and ES also acknowledge support from Marie Curie IRG grant 230924 and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research grant number 639.042.814. TDK acknowledges support from a Royal Society University Research Fellowship. YM acknowledges support from CNRS/INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers) and the Programme National Galaxies et Cosmologie (PNCG). LF acknowledges support from NSFC grants 11103012 and 10878003, Innovation Programme 12ZZ134 and Chen Guang project 10CG46 of SMEC and STCSM grant 11290706600 and Pujiang Programme 12PJ1406700. MJH acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). TS acknowledges support from NSF through grant AST-0444059-001, SAO through grant GO0-11147A and NWO. MV acknowledges support from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and from the Beecroft Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology. CB is supported by the Spanish Science Ministry AYA2009- 13936 Consolider-IngenioCSD2007-00060, project 2009SGR1398 from Generalitat de Catalunya and by the European Commissions Marie Curie Initial Training Network CosmoComp (PITN-GA-2009-238356). Author Contributions: All authors contributed to the development and writing of this paper. The authorship list reflects the lead authors of this paper (P. Simon, T. Erben, and P. Schneider) followed by two alphabetical groups. The first alphabetical group includes key contributors to the science analysis and interpretation in this paper, the founding core team and those whose long-term significant effort produced the final CFHTLenS data product. The second group covers members of the CFHTLenS team who made a significant contribution to either of the project, this paper or both. CH and LVW co-led the CFHTLenS collaboration.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Commissions Marie Curie Research Training Network DUELMRTN-CT-2006-036133
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)ER 327/3-1
Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR33UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council EC FP7240185
European Research Council EC FP7279396
European Research Council EC FP7240672
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIfAR)UNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie IOF252760
CITA National FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)Hi 1495/2-1
Marie Curie IRG230924
Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)639.042.814
Royal Society University Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Programme National Galaxies et Cosmologie (PNCG)UNSPECIFIED
SMEC Innovation Programme12ZZ134
SMEC Chen Guang project10CG46
Pujiang Programme12PJ1406700
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Beecroft Institute for Particle Astrophysics and CosmologyUNSPECIFIED
Spanish Science MinistryAYA2009-13936
Consolider-Ingenio CSD2007-00060
Generalitat de Catalunya2009SGR1398
European Commissions Marie Curie Initial Training Network CosmoCompPITN-GA-2009-238356
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: weak; galaxies: haloes; darkmatter; large-scale structure of Universe
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130702-160923595
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:39191
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:03 Jul 2013 17:07
Last Modified:03 Jul 2013 17:07

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