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Demographics of the Galaxies Hosting Short-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

Fong, W. and Berger, E. and Chornock, R. and Margutti, R. and Levan, A. J. and Tanvir, N. R. and Tunnicliffe, R. L. and Czekala, I. and Fox, D. B. and Perley, D. A. and Cenko, S. B. and Zauderer, B. A. and Laskar, T. and Persson, S. E. and Monson, A. J. and Kelson, D. D. and Birk, C. and Murphy, D. and Servillat, M. and Anglada, G. (2013) Demographics of the Galaxies Hosting Short-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts. Astrophysical Journal, 769 (1). Art. No. 56. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of ≈4.6 × 10^9 M_☉ and a stellar population age of ≈0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of ≈1.4 × 10^9 M_☉, a star formation rate of ≈16 M_☉ yr^(–1), and a stellar population age of ≈50 Myr. We also report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i ≳ 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of ≈10^(–4)-1 cm^(–3) and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of ≈10^(50)-10^(51) erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment (~1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type (≈50%), early-type (≈15%), inconclusive (≈20%), and "host-less" (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of ≳26 mag; ≈15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of ≈60%-80% and ≈20%-40%, respectively. We find no clear trend between gamma-ray duration and host type. We also find no change to the fractions when excluding events recently claimed as possible contaminants from the long GRB/collapsar population. Our reported demographics are consistent with a short GRB rate driven by both stellar mass and star formation.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Berger, E.0000-0002-9392-9681
Chornock, R.0000-0002-7706-5668
Margutti, R.0000-0003-4768-7586
Czekala, I.0000-0002-1483-8811
Fox, D. B.0000-0002-3714-672X
Perley, D. A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Cenko, S. B.0000-0003-1673-970X
Zauderer, B. A.0000-0003-1152-518X
Laskar, T.0000-0003-1792-2338
Monson, A. J.0000-0002-0048-2586
Servillat, M.0000-0001-5443-4128
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 January 7; accepted 2013 April 6; published 2013 May 3. We thank F. di Mille for observing on behalf of the Berger GRB group at Harvard. The Berger GRB group is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant AST-1107973, and by NASA/Swift AO6 grant NNX10AI24G and A07 grant NNX12AD69G. Partial support was also provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra Award Number GO1-12072X issued by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This work is based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovaciόn Productiva (Argentina). This work made use of data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre at the University of Leicester. S.B.C. acknowledges generous support from Gary & Cynthia Bengier, the Richard & Rhoda Goldman Fund, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and NSF grants AST-0908886 and AST-1211916.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gary and Cynthia BengierUNSPECIFIED
Richard and Rhoda Goldman FundUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:gamma-ray burst: general
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130712-075708218
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Official Citation:Demographics of the Galaxies Hosting Short-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts W. Fong, E. Berger, R. Chornock, R. Margutti, A. J. Levan, N. R. Tanvir, R. L. Tunnicliffe, I. Czekala, D. B. Fox, D. A. Perley, S. B. Cenko, B. A. Zauderer, T. Laskar, S. E. Persson, A. J. Monson, D. D. Kelson, C. Birk, D. Murphy, M. Servillat, and G. Anglada doi:10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/56
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:39328
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:12 Jul 2013 15:44
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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