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The Herschel PEP/HerMES luminosity function – I. Probing the evolution of PACS selected Galaxies to z ≃ 4

Gruppioni, C. and Bock, J. and Cooray, A. and Dowell, C. D. and Levenson, L. and Lu, N. and Nguyen, H. T. and Schulz, B. and Shupe, D. L. and Xu, C. K. and Zemcov, M. (2013) The Herschel PEP/HerMES luminosity function – I. Probing the evolution of PACS selected Galaxies to z ≃ 4. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 432 (1). pp. 23-52. ISSN 0035-8711.

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We exploit the deep and extended far-IR data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 μm) of the Herschel Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data at 250, 350 and 500 μm, to derive the evolution of the rest-frame 35-, 60-, 90- and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z ∼ 4. We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF (L_IR ∝ (1 + z)^3.55 ± 0.10) up to z ∼ 2, and ∝ (1 + z)^(1.62 ± 0.51) at 2 < z ≲ 4) combined with a density evolution (∝(1 + z)^(−0.57 ± 0.22) up to z ∼ 1 and ∝ (1 + z)^(−3.92 ± 0.34) at 1 < z ≲ 4). In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density (ρIR) increases steeply to z ∼ 1, then flattens between z ∼ 1 and z ∼ 3 to decrease at z ≳ 3. Galaxies with different spectral energy distributions, masses and specific star formation rates (SFRs) evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to ρIR. Galaxies occupying the well-established SFR–stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF and ρIR at all redshifts, with the contribution from off-MS sources (≥0.6 dex above MS) being nearly constant (∼20 per cent of the total ρIR) and showing no significant signs of increase with increasing z over the whole 0.8 < z < 2.2 range. Sources with mass in the range 10 ≤ log(M/M_⊙) ≤ 11 are found to dominate the total IR LF, with more massive galaxies prevailing at the bright end of the high-z (≳2) LF. A two-fold evolutionary scheme for IR galaxies is envisaged: on the one hand, a starburst-dominated phase in which the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) grows and is obscured by dust (possibly triggered by a major merging event), is followed by an AGN-dominated phase, then evolving towards a local elliptical. On the other hand, moderately star-forming galaxies containing a low-luminosity AGN have various properties suggesting they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase preceding the formation of steady spiral galaxies.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Gruppioni, C.0000-0002-5836-4056
Bock, J.0000-0002-5710-5212
Cooray, A.0000-0002-3892-0190
Lu, N.0000-0002-8948-1044
Shupe, D. L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Xu, C. K.0000-0002-1588-6700
Zemcov, M.0000-0001-8253-1451
Additional Information:© 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2013 February 18. Received 2013 February 13; in original form 2012 October 23. First published online: April 16, 2013. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including: UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAFIFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); and IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy) and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff Univ. (UK) and including: Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM(France); IFSI,Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); StockholmObservatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCLMSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK) and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK) and NASA (USA). CG and FP acknowledge financial contribution from the contracts PRIN-INAF and ASI-INAF I00507/1 and I005110. PM thanks the University of Trieste for the grant FRA2009. The authors thank an anonymous referee for the helpful comments that greatly improved the quality of the paper.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia Y Tecnologia (MCYT)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I00507/1
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I005110
University of TriesteFRA2009
Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active – galaxies: evolution – galaxies: luminosity function, mass function – galaxies: starburst – cosmology: observations – infrared: galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130730-104305133
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:C. Gruppioni, F. Pozzi, G. Rodighiero, I. Delvecchio, S. Berta, L. Pozzetti, G. Zamorani, P. Andreani, A. Cimatti, O. Ilbert, E. Le Floc’h, D. Lutz, B. Magnelli, L. Marchetti, P. Monaco, R. Nordon, S. Oliver, P. Popesso, L. Riguccini, I. Roseboom, D. J. Rosario, M. Sargent, M. Vaccari, B. Altieri, H. Aussel, A. Bongiovanni, J. Cepa, E. Daddi, H. Domínguez-Sánchez, D. Elbaz, N. Förster Schreiber, R. Genzel, A. Iribarrem, M. Magliocchetti, R. Maiolino, A. Poglitsch, A. Pérez García, M. Sanchez-Portal, E. Sturm, L. Tacconi, I. Valtchanov, A. Amblard, V. Arumugam, M. Bethermin, J. Bock, A. Boselli, V. Buat, D. Burgarella, N. Castro-Rodríguez, A. Cava, P. Chanial, D. L. Clements, A. Conley, A. Cooray, C. D. Dowell, E. Dwek, S. Eales, A. Franceschini, J. Glenn, M. Griffin, E. Hatziminaoglou, E. Ibar, K. Isaak, R. J. Ivison, G. Lagache, L. Levenson, N. Lu, S. Madden, B. Maffei, G. Mainetti, H. T. Nguyen, B. O’Halloran, M. J. Page, P. Panuzzo, A. Papageorgiou, C. P. Pearson, I. Pérez-Fournon, M. Pohlen, D. Rigopoulou, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. Schulz, D. Scott, N. Seymour, D. L. Shupe, A. J. Smith, J. A. Stevens, M. Symeonidis, M. Trichas, K. E. Tugwell, L. Vigroux, L. Wang, G. Wright, C. K. Xu, M. Zemcov, S. Bardelli, M. Carollo, T. Contini, O. Le Févre, S. Lilly, V. Mainieri, A. Renzini, M. Scodeggio, E. Zucca, The Herschel PEP/HerMES luminosity function – I. Probing the evolution of PACS selected Galaxies to z ≃ 4, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 432, Issue 1, 11 June 2013, Pages 23–52,
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ID Code:39650
Deposited On:31 Jul 2013 14:37
Last Modified:29 Jan 2020 00:00

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