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VNIR multispectral observations of rocks at Cape York, Endeavour crater, Mars by the Opportunity rover’s Pancam

Farrand, William H. and Bell, James F., III and Johnson, Jeffrey R. and Rice, Melissa S. and Hurowitz, Joel A. (2013) VNIR multispectral observations of rocks at Cape York, Endeavour crater, Mars by the Opportunity rover’s Pancam. Icarus, 225 (1). pp. 709-725. ISSN 0019-1035. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130809-104050363

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Abstract

From its arrival at the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known informally as Cape York, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has made numerous visible and near infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rock surfaces. This paper describes multispectral observations from Opportunity’s arrival at Cape York to its winter-over location at Greeley Haven. Averages of pixels from the Pancam’s left and right eyes were joined to form 11 point spectra from numerous observations and were examined via a number of techniques. These included principal components analysis, a sequential maximum angle convex cone approach, examination of spectral parameters, and a hierarchical clustering approach. The end result of these analyses was the determination of six primary spectral (PS) classes describing spectrally unique materials observed on Cape York. These classes consisted of a “standard” outcrop spectrum that was observed on the clasts and matrix comprising the upper unit of the Shoemaker formation, a class representing rock surfaces exposed around Odyssey crater and typified by the rocks of the Tisdale series, pebbles occurring in and weathered out of the upper unit of the Shoemaker formation that appear red in 1009, 904, 754 nm color composites, patches on Tisdale rocks exhibiting a 864 nm band minimum that were spectrally anomalous in root mean square error images derived from spectral mixture analyses, clasts with a high 904 nm band depth occurring in the Greeley Haven location, and gypsum veins typified by the vein Homestake. Comparisons of three of these classes that had well defined band minima between 800 and 1009 nm with spectral library spectra of ferrous silicates and ferric oxide, oxyhydroxide and ferric sulfate minerals indicated tentative matches of the “red” pebbles with orthopyroxenes, of the spectrally anomalous 864 nm band minimum material with hematite or ferric sulfates, and of the high 904 nm band depth material with an orthopyroxene–clinopyroxene mixture. The spectral properties of rock surfaces on Cape York are distinct from those of Burns Formation outcrops observed on the Meridiani Plains. The Cape York outcrop is Noachian in age and study of these materials provides insight into less acidic environmental conditions extant before the formation of the Burns Formation.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2013.04.014DOIArticle
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103513001747PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Bell, James F., III0000-0002-2006-4074
Johnson, Jeffrey R.0000-0002-5586-4901
Rice, Melissa S.0000-0002-8370-4139
Hurowitz, Joel A.0000-0002-5857-8652
Additional Information:© 2013 Elsevier Inc. Received 13 October 2012; Revised 10 April 2013; Accepted 15 April 2013; Available online 30 April 2013. Funding for Athena science team members was provided by NASA contracts through Cornell University and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We are grateful to helpful reviews by Edward Cloutis and Eldar Noe Dobrea.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA through Cornell UniversityUNSPECIFIED
JPLUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Mars; Mars, Surface; Spectroscopy
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130809-104050363
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130809-104050363
Official Citation:William H. Farrand, James F. Bell III, Jeffrey R. Johnson, Melissa S. Rice, Joel A. Hurowitz, VNIR multispectral observations of rocks at Cape York, Endeavour crater, Mars by the Opportunity rover’s Pancam, Icarus, Volume 225, Issue 1, July 2013, Pages 709-725, ISSN 0019-1035, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2013.04.014.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:39838
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:09 Aug 2013 23:13
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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