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Fabrication of metallic microstructures using exposed, developed silver halide-based photographic film

Deng, Tao and Arias, Francisco and Ismagilov, Rustem F. and Kenis, Paul J. A. and Whitesides, George M. (2000) Fabrication of metallic microstructures using exposed, developed silver halide-based photographic film. Analytical Chemistry, 72 (4). pp. 645-651. ISSN 0003-2700. doi:10.1021/ac991010p.

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This paper demonstrates that the pattern of silver particles embedded in the gelatin matrix of exposed and developed silver halide-based photographic film can serve as a template in a broadly applicable method for the microfabrication of metallic microstructures. In this method, a CAD file is reproduced in the photographic film by exposure and developing. The resulting pattern of discontinuous silver grains is augmented and made electrically continuous by electroless deposition of silver, and the electrically continuous structure is then used as the cathode for electrochemical deposition of an additional layer of the same or different metal. The overall process can be completed within 2 h, starting from a CAD file, and can generate electrically continuous structures with the smallest dimension in the plane of the film of 30 μm. Structures with aspect ratio of up to 5 can also be obtained by using the metallic structures as photomasks in photolithography using SU-8 photoresist on the top of the electroplated pattern and exposed from the bottom, followed by development and electroplating through the patterned photoresist. This method of fabrication uses readily available equipment and makes it possible to develop prototypes of a wide variety of metallic structures and devices. The resulting structures either supported on the film backing or freed from it are appropriate for use as passive, structural materials such as wire frames or meshes and can also be used in microfluidic, microanalytical, and microelectromechanical systems.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Ismagilov, Rustem F.0000-0002-3680-4399
Whitesides, George M.0000-0001-9451-2442
Additional Information: Copyright © 2000 American Chemical Society. Published In Issue: February 15, 2000. Received for review September 1, 1999. Accepted December 3, 1999. This work was supported by DARPA and the NSF (Grant ECS-9729405). P.J.A.K. acknowledges The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) for a postdoctoral fellowship. We thank Scott T. Brittain for helpful discussions. This work used MRSEC shared facilities supported by the NSF (Grants DMR-9400396 and DMR-9809363).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:replication; complex
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130821-160717870
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Official Citation:Fabrication of Metallic Microstructures Using Exposed, Developed Silver Halide-Based Photographic Film Tao Deng,Francisco Arias,Rustem F. Ismagilov,Paul J. A. Kenis, and, and George M. Whitesides* Analytical Chemistry 2000 72 (4), 645-651
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:40788
Deposited By: Whitney Barlow
Deposited On:23 Aug 2013 19:56
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 00:08

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