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The First Hi-GAL Observations of the Outer Galaxy: A Look at Star Formation in the Third Galactic Quadrant in the Longitude Range 216.º5 ≾ ℓ ≾ 225.º5

Elia, D. and Molinari, S. and Fukui, Y. and Schisano, E. and Olmi, L. and Veneziani, M. and Hayakawa, T. and Pestalozzi, M. and Schneider, N. and Benedettini, M. and di Giorgio, A. M. and Ikhenaode, D. and Mizuno, A. and Onishi, T. and Pezzuto, S. and Piazzo, L. and Polychroni, D. and Rygl, K. L. J. and Yamamoto, H. and Maruccia, Y. (2013) The First Hi-GAL Observations of the Outer Galaxy: A Look at Star Formation in the Third Galactic Quadrant in the Longitude Range 216.º5 ≾ ℓ ≾ 225.º5. Astrophysical Journal, 772 (1). Art. No. 45. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present the first Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric observations in a portion of the outer Galaxy (216.º5≾ℓ≾ 225.º5 and –2°≾b≾0°) as a part of the Hi-GAL survey. The maps between 70 and 500 μm, the derived column density and temperature maps, and the compact source catalog are presented. NANTEN CO(1-0) line observations are used to derive cloud kinematics and distances so that we can estimate distance-dependent physical parameters of the compact sources (cores and clumps) having a reliable spectral energy distribution that we separate into 255 proto-stellar and 688 starless sources. Both typologies are found in association with all the distance components observed in the field, up to ~5.8 kpc, testifying to the presence of star formation beyond the Perseus arm at these longitudes. Selecting the starless gravitationally bound sources, we identify 590 pre-stellar candidates. Several sources of both proto- and pre-stellar nature are found to exceed the minimum requirement for being compatible with massive star formation based on the mass-radius relation. For the pre-stellar sources belonging to the Local arm (d ≾ 1.5 kpc) we study the mass function whose high-mass end shows a power law N(log M)∝M^(–1.0 ± 0.2). Finally, we use a luminosity versus mass diagram to infer the evolutionary status of the sources, finding that most of the proto-stellar sources are in the early accretion phase (with some cases compatible with a Class I stage), while for pre-stellar sources, in general, accretion has not yet started.

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Olmi, L.0000-0002-1162-7947
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 January 22; accepted 2013 April 25; published 2013 July 5. PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAF-IFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); and IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESAPRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff Univ. (UK) and including Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); INAF-IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by the national funding agencies CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). D.E., M.P., and K.J.L.R. are funded by an ASI fellowship under contract numbers I/005/11/0 and I/038/08/0. D.P. is funded through the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds. Facilities: Herschel.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I/005/11/0
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN) UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I/038/080/0
Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning"UNSPECIFIED
European Social FundUNSPECIFIED
Greek national fundsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords: Galaxy: structure; infrared: ISM; ISM: clouds; ISM: molecules; stars: formation
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20130910-114342738
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Official Citation:The First Hi-GAL Observations of the Outer Galaxy: A Look at Star Formation in the Third Galactic Quadrant in the Longitude Range 216º5 ≾ ℓ ≾ 225º5 D. Elia, S. Molinari, Y. Fukui, E. Schisano, L. Olmi, M. Veneziani, T. Hayakawa, M. Pestalozzi, N. Schneider, M. Benedettini, A. M. di Giorgio, D. Ikhenaode, A. Mizuno, T. Onishi, S. Pezzuto, L. Piazzo, D. Polychroni, K. L. J. Rygl, H. Yamamoto, and Y. Maruccia doi:10.1088/0004-637X/772/1/45
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:41210
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:10 Sep 2013 21:03
Last Modified:23 Nov 2019 00:03

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