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Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging

Gan, Lingwen and Topcu, Ufuk and Low, Steven H. (2013) Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 28 (2). pp. 940-951. ISSN 0885-8950. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2210288.

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We propose a decentralized algorithm to optimally schedule electric vehicle (EV) charging. The algorithm exploits the elasticity of electric vehicle loads to fill the valleys in electric load profiles. We first formulate the EV charging scheduling problem as an optimal control problem, whose objective is to impose a generalized notion of valley-filling, and study properties of optimal charging profiles. We then give a decentralized algorithm to iteratively solve the optimal control problem. In each iteration, EVs update their charging profiles according to the control signal broadcast by the utility company, and the utility company alters the control signal to guide their updates. The algorithm converges to optimal charging profiles (that are as “flat” as they can possibly be) irrespective of the specifications (e.g., maximum charging rate and deadline) of EVs, even if EVs do not necessarily update their charging profiles in every iteration, and use potentially outdated control signal when they update. Moreover, the algorithm only requires each EV solving its local problem, hence its implementation requires low computation capability. We also extend the algorithm to track a given load profile and to real-time implementation.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription DOIArticle
Low, Steven H.0000-0001-6476-3048
Additional Information:© 2012 IEEE. Manuscript received November 12, 2011; revised February 29, 2012 and May 28, 2012; accepted July 13, 2012. Date of publication September 27, 2012; date of current version April 18, 2013. This work was supported by Bell Labs of Alcatel-Lucent, NSF NetSE grant CNS 0911041, ARPA-E grant DE-AR0000226, Southern California Edison, National Science Council of Taiwan, R.O.C, grant NSC 101-3113-P-008-001, Resnick Institute, Okawa Foundation, Boeing Corporation, Cisco, and AFOSR award number FA9550-12-1-0302. Paper no. TPWRS-01087-2011. The authors would like to thank K. Mani Chandy and S. Adlakha for inspiring discussions.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bell Labs of Alcatel-LucentUNSPECIFIED
NSFCNS 0911041
Southern California EdisonUNSPECIFIED
National Science Council (Taipei)NSC 101-3113-P-008-001
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Okawa FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Boeing CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-12-1-0302
Subject Keywords:Controllable electric load; distributed optimal control; electric vehicle charging; valley-filling
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20131003-094643635
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Gan, L.; Topcu, U.; Low, S, "Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.28, no.2, pp.940,951, May 2013 doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2210288
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:41651
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:03 Oct 2013 20:57
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 04:32

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