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HerMES: The Far-infrared Emission from Dust-obscured Galaxies

Calanog, J. A. and Wardlow, J. and Fu, Hai and Cooray, A. and Assef, R. J. and Bock, J. J. and Casey, C. M. and Conley, A. and Farrah, D. and Ibar, E. and Kartaltepe, J. and Magdis, G. and Marchetti, L. and Oliver, S. J. and Pérez-Fournon, I. and Riechers, D. and Rigopoulou, D. and Roseboom, I. G. and Schulz, B. and Scott, Douglas and Symeonidis, M. and Vaccari, M. and Viero, M. and Zemcov, M. (2013) HerMES: The Far-infrared Emission from Dust-obscured Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal, 775 (1). Art. No. 61. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/775/1/61.

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Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ~ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg^2 of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have 〈z〉 = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r^+ observations using a color cut of r^+ – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S_(24) ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10^(12) L_☉ and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10^(12) L_☉, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S_(24) ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S_(24) ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ~ 2.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Wardlow, J.0000-0003-2376-8971
Fu, Hai0000-0001-9608-6395
Cooray, A.0000-0002-3892-0190
Assef, R. J.0000-0002-9508-3667
Bock, J. J.0000-0002-5710-5212
Casey, C. M.0000-0002-0930-6466
Farrah, D.0000-0003-1748-2010
Kartaltepe, J.0000-0001-9187-3605
Marchetti, L.0000-0003-3948-7621
Oliver, S. J.0000-0001-7862-1032
Riechers, D.0000-0001-9585-1462
Rigopoulou, D.0000-0001-6854-7545
Scott, Douglas0000-0002-6878-9840
Vaccari, M.0000-0002-6748-0577
Zemcov, M.0000-0001-8253-1451
Alternate Title:Far-IR Emission From Dust-Obscured Galaxies
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 April 16, accepted for publication 2013 July 22. Published 2013 September 5. We thank the anonymous referee for useful comments that helped improve this paper. We thank Jason Melbourne for insightful discussions. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including: University of Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, University of Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCLMSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, University of Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). This research has made use of data from the HerMES project ( HerMES is a Herschel Key Programme utilizing Guaranteed Time from the SPIRE instrument team, ESAC scientists, and a mission scientist. The data presented in this paper will be released through the HerMES Database in Marseille, HeDaM ( We our thankful to the COSMOS collaboration for granting us access to their catalogs and we gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the entire COSMOS team that have made this work possible. More information on the COSMOS survey is available at This work is based (in part) on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. We acknowledge support from a GAANN fellowship (to J.A.C.), NSF CAREER AST-0645427 (A.C. and H.F.), and NASA funds to the US HerMES team through JPL. S.O. acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council [grant number ST/I000976/1]. Some of the data (spectroscopic redshifts) presented here were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community.We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facilities: Herschel (SPIRE), Spitzer (IRAC, MIPS), Subaru (Suprime Cam), Keck:II (DEIMOS)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/I000976/1
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords: galaxies: luminosity function, mass function; galaxies: star formation; infrared: galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20131025-085434310
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:HerMES: The Far-infrared Emission from Dust-obscured Galaxies J. A. Calanog et al. 2013 ApJ 775 61
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:42059
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:25 Oct 2013 16:43
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 04:37

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