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Isotopic and trace element constraints on the origin and evolution of saline groundwaters from central Missouri

Banner, Jay L. and Wasserburg, G. J. and Dobson, Patrick F. and Carpenter, Alden B. and Moore, Clyde H. (1989) Isotopic and trace element constraints on the origin and evolution of saline groundwaters from central Missouri. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53 (2). pp. 383-398. ISSN 0016-7037. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20131029-121937453

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Abstract

Na-Ca-Cl groundwaters with salinities of 1 to 30% discharge from natural springs and artesian wells in Mississippian carbonates and Ordovician sandstones and carbonates in central Missouri. Carbonate saturation and quartz supersaturation are maintained throughout the salinity range. Major and trace element and isotopic variations in the waters are used to place constraints on models for rock-water interaction and regional hydrology. The groundwaters have δD values that range from −108 to −45‰ and δ^(18)O values that range from −14.7 to −6.5‰ (SMOW). These data lie approximately along the meteoric water line, ranging from values similar to local recharge in Missouri, to significantly lower values that are similar to δ^(18)O and δD for meteoric recharge in high altitude and high latitude regions of North America. The more saline samples have the lowest ^(18)O and D contents, a trend that is opposite to that observed in most other studies of saline waters. The H-O isotopic correlation and the range in salinity and several major and trace element concentrations in central Missouri groundwaters are readily explained by a saline-dilute water mixing model. 87Sr/86Sr ratios for the groundwaters range from 0.7155 to 0.7161. These values are significantly higher than previously published values for: 1) estimates of ^(87)Sr/^(86)Sr in Phanerozoic seawater (0.7068–0.7092); and 2) carbonates of the Mississippian Burlington-Keokuk Fm. (0.7075–0.7105), through which some of the waters migrate as they pass to the surface. ϵNd(0) values in the groundwaters range from −10.9 to −8.1, and ^(147)Sm/^(144)Nd ratios range from 0.108 to 0.128. These values are similar to or lower than previously published analyses of carbonates and other authigenic phases from the Burlington-Keokuk Fm. (mean ϵNd(0) = −7.8 ± 0.8 (1σ); mean ^(147)Sm/^(144)Nd = 0.141). The H, O, Sr and Nd isotopic data and the results of model calculations preclude: 1) models involving the modification of ancient seawater for the origin of the saline waters, and 2) extensive interaction between the groundwaters and their host carbonates. The waters apparently acquired their δ^(18)O and δD values as meteoric recharge and their 87Sr/86Sr and rare earth element signatures from extraformational crustal sources (high ^(87)Sr/^(86)Sr; low ϵNd(0); low 147Sm/144Nd) and largely preserved these isotopic signatures during subsequent migration through the carbonates. Chemical exchange via rock-water interaction is required for isotopic exchange to occur. Therefore, the present state of chemical equilibrium between the groundwaters and carbonate aquifer minerals may serve to limit rock-water interaction, and hence preserve the extraformational isotopic signatures in the waters. The integration of geochemical, isotopic and hydrologic data on a local and regional scale suggests a history for the central Missouri groundwaters involving: 1) meteoric recharge in the Front Range of Colorado; 2) dissolution of Permian halite in the subsurface of Kansas; 3) interaction with predominantly silicate mineral assemblages in Paleozoic strata (and possibly Precambrian basement), with aquisition of crustal Sr and REE signatures; 4) dilution and migration to shallow aquifer levels in central Missouri; and 5) mixing with local meteoric recharge through Mississippian carbonates with no significant change of the isotopic signatures acquired in stage (3).


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(89)90390-6DOIArticle
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703789903906PublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 1989 Pergamon Press. Received April 25, 1988; accepted in revised form November 8, 1988. We are grateful for the support of the Basin Research Institute and the industrial associates of the Applied Carbonate Research Program at Louisiana State University, which made this work possible. Valuable technical resistance and advice was provided by several parties: P. and C. Nabelek and D. Provance in the field, W. Campbell and N. Thomas at Chevron, and H. Ngo and O. Stecher at CIT. W. Campbell's filtration apparatus made filtering of formidable amounts of fluid in the field feasible. We thank D. Papanastassiou for facilitating smooth technical operations at CIT. S. Epstein and J. O'Neil kindly made available their isotope facilities. J. Imes, D. Jorgensen and P. Blanchard generously shared data and ideas on the hydrology of the mid-continent. Helpful reviews were provided by N. Clauer, J. David, and an anonymous reviewer. Comments by G. Hanson, G. Banner, H. Cander, L. Land, and G. MacPherson improved the manuscript. This work was supported in part by NSF EAR Grants 86-18526 and 85-04096 and DOE Grant DE-FG03-88ER13851. Division Contribution No. 4612 (599).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFEAR 86-18526
NSFEAR 85-04096
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG03-88ER13851
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences4612
Lunatic Asylum Lab 599
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20131029-121937453
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20131029-121937453
Official Citation:Jay L Banner, G.J Wasserburg, Patrick F Dobson, Alden B Carpenter, Clyde H Moore, Isotopic and trace element constraints on the origin and evolution of saline groundwaters from central Missouri, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 53, Issue 2, February 1989, Pages 383-398, ISSN 0016-7037, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(89)90390-6.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:42111
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:31 Oct 2013 22:54
Last Modified:31 Oct 2013 22:54

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