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New constraints on dike injection and fault slip during the 1975–1984 Krafla rift crisis, NE Iceland

Hollingsworth, J. and Leprince, Sébastien and Ayoub, François and Avouac, Jean-Philippe (2013) New constraints on dike injection and fault slip during the 1975–1984 Krafla rift crisis, NE Iceland. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 118 (7). pp. 3707-3727. ISSN 2169-9313. doi:10.1002/jgrb.50223.

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Correlation of KH9 spy and SPOT5 satellite images, airphotos, digital elevation model differencing, electronic distance measurement, and leveling survey data is used to constrain the deformation resulting from the 1975–1984 Krafla rifting crisis. We find that diking typically extends to depths of 5 km, while the dike tops range from 0 km in the caldera region to 3 km at the northern end of the rift. Extension is accommodated by diking at depth and normal faulting in the shallowest crust. In the southern section of the Krafla rift, surface opening is 80% of the dike opening at depth. Over the 70–80 km length of the rift, the average dike opening was 4.3–5.4 m. From these estimates, we calculate the total geodetic moment released over the Krafla rift crisis, 4.4–9.0×10^(19) Nm, which is an order of magnitude higher than the seismic moment released over the same time period, ~5.8×10^(18) Nm. The total volume of magma added to the upper crust was 1.1–2.1×10^9m^3. This study highlights how optical image correlation using inexpensive declassified spy satellite and airphotos, combined with simple models of crustal deformation, can provide important constraints on the deformation resulting from past earthquake and volcanic events.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription DOIArticle
Hollingsworth, J.0000-0003-0122-296X
Leprince, Sébastien0000-0003-4555-8975
Ayoub, François0000-0002-7389-8400
Avouac, Jean-Philippe0000-0002-3060-8442
Additional Information:© 2013 American Geophysical Union. Received 31 October 2012; revised 9 April 2013; accepted 19 May 2013; published 11 July 2013. Part of this research was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBM 2808 to the Advanced Earth Observation Project at Caltech. We also thank the Keck Institute for Space Studies for financial support. Thora Arnadottir kindly provided EDM displacement data for the Krafla rift from 1978 to 1989 [Tryggvason, 1991]. Arzan Surazakov provided helpful advice and discussion regarding ortho-rectification of KH9 Hexagon data. The decision to look at displacement in the epipolar perpendicular direction was inspired by discussions with Renaud Binet. Bjarney Gudbjornsdottir and Carsten Kristinsson (National Land Survey of Iceland) were extremely helpful with locating and scanning all airphotos used in this study. Tim Smith (USGS contractor working within Earth Resources Observation and Science, EROS) provided valuable assistance with scanning KH9 spy satellite images. This work greatly benefited from detailed reviews by Tim Wright and an anonymous reviewer. Various aspects of this study benefited from discussions with Raphael Grandin, Mark Simons, Sylvain Barbot, John Maclennan, Dan McKenzie, Gilles Peltzer, and Alex Copley. We are grateful to Heather Steele and Lisa Christiansen, who helped with ordering imagery and provided GIS support. Various images in this paper were created using the public domain Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software [Wessel and Smith, 1998]. This is Tectonics Observatory contribution number 232.
Group:Caltech Tectonics Observatory, Keck Institute for Space Studies, Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBM 2808
Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:dike injection; Iceland; faulting; oceanic rifting; Krafla; optical image correlation
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Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Caltech Tectonics Observatory 232
Issue or Number:7
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20131104-085648056
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Official Citation:Hollingsworth, J., S. Leprince, F. Ayoub, and J.-P. Avouac (2013), New constraints on dike injection and fault slip during the 1975–1984 Krafla rift crisis, NE Iceland, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 3707–3727, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50223
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:42210
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Nov 2013 17:15
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 16:19

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