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Reversal or no reversal: the evolution of the star formation rate–density relation up to z ∼ 1.6

Ziparo, F. and Fadda, D. (2014) Reversal or no reversal: the evolution of the star formation rate–density relation up to z ∼ 1.6. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 437 (1). pp. 458-474. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1901.

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We investigate the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR)–density relation in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South and the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey fields up to z ∼ 1.6. In addition to the ‘traditional method’, in which the environment is defined according to a statistical measurement of the local galaxy density, we use a ‘dynamical’ approach, where galaxies are classified according to three different environment regimes: group, ‘filament-like’ and field. Both methods show no evidence of an SFR–density reversal. Moreover, group galaxies show a mean SFR lower than other environments up to z ∼ 1, while at earlier epochs group and field galaxies exhibit consistent levels of star formation (SF) activity. We find that processes related to a massive dark matter halo must be dominant in the suppression of the SF below z ∼ 1, with respect to purely density-related processes. We confirm this finding by studying the distribution of galaxies in different environments with respect to the so-called main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Galaxies in both group and ‘filament-like’ environments preferentially lie below the MS up to z ∼ 1, with group galaxies exhibiting lower levels of star-forming activity at a given mass. At z > 1, the star-forming galaxies in groups reside on the MS. Groups exhibit the highest fraction of quiescent galaxies up to z ∼ 1, after which group, ‘filament-like’ and field environments have a similar mix of galaxy types. We conclude that groups are the most efficient locus for SF quenching. Thus, a fundamental difference exists between bound and unbound objects, or between dark matter haloes of different masses.

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Fadda, D.0000-0002-3698-7076
Additional Information:© 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2013 October 3; received 2013 September 22; in original form 2013 April 29. First published online: November 2, 2013. We thank the anonymous referee for her/his constructive comments. FZ acknowledges the support from and participation in the International Max-Planck Research School on Astrophysics at the Ludwig-Maximilians University. We would like to thank Rob Yates for reading the paper and providing useful comments. MT gratefully acknowledges support by KAKENHI no. 23740144. FEB acknowledges support from Basal-CATA (PFB-06/2007), CONICYT-Chile (under grants FONDECYT 1101024, ALMACONICYT 31100004 and Anillo ACT1101), and Chandra X-ray Center grant SAO SP1-12007B. PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KUL, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, OAMP (France); MPIA (Germany); IFSI, OAP/AOT, OAA/CAISMI, LENS, SISSA (Italy); and IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI (Italy) and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System, of NED, which is operated by JPL/Caltech, under contract with NASA, and of SDSS, which has been funded by the Sloan Foundation, NSF, the US Department of Energy, NASA, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council of England. The SDSS is managed by the participating institutions ( This work has been partially supported by a SAO grant SP1-12006B grant to UMBC.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
International Max-Planck Research School on AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
CONICYT-ChileAnillo ACT1101
Chandra X-ray Center grantSAO SP1-12007B
SAO grantSP1-12006B
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution; galaxies: groups: general; galaxies: star formation; infrared: galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140117-113240210
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:43430
Deposited On:22 Jan 2014 16:58
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 16:37

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