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The Era of Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters

Brodwin, M. and Stanford, S. A. and Gonzalez, Anthony H. and Zeimann, G. R. and Snyder, G. F. and Mancone, C. L. and Pope, A. and Eisenhardt, P. R. and Stern, D. and Alberts, S. and Ashby, M. L. N. and Brown, M. J. I. and Chary, R.-R. and Dey, Arjun and Galametz, A. and Gettings, D. P. and Jannuzi, B. T. and Miller, E. D. and Moustakas, J. and Moustakas, L. A. (2013) The Era of Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters. Astrophysical Journal, 779 (2). Art. No. 138. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We analyze the star formation properties of 16 infrared-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). We present new spectroscopic confirmation for six of these high-redshift clusters, five of which are at z > 1.35. Using infrared luminosities measured with deep Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations at 24 μm, along with robust optical + IRAC photometric redshifts and spectral-energy-distribution-fitted stellar masses, we present the dust-obscured star-forming fractions, star formation rates, and specific star formation rates in these clusters as functions of redshift and projected clustercentric radius. We find that z ~ 1.4 represents a transition redshift for the ISCS sample, with clear evidence of an unquenched era of cluster star formation at earlier times. Beyond this redshift, the fraction of star-forming cluster members increases monotonically toward the cluster centers. Indeed, the specific star formation rate in the cores of these distant clusters is consistent with field values at similar redshifts, indicating that at z > 1.4 environment-dependent quenching had not yet been established in ISCS clusters. By combining these observations with complementary studies showing a rapid increase in the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, a stochastic star formation history, and a major merging episode at the same epoch in this cluster sample, we suggest that the starburst activity is likely merger-driven and that the subsequent quenching is due to feedback from merger-fueled AGNs. The totality of the evidence suggests we are witnessing the final quenching period that brings an end to the era of star formation in galaxy clusters and initiates the era of passive evolution.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Brodwin, M.0000-0002-4208-798X
Gonzalez, Anthony H.0000-0002-0933-8601
Pope, A.0000-0001-8592-2706
Stern, D.0000-0003-2686-9241
Ashby, M. L. N.0000-0002-3993-0745
Brown, M. J. I.0000-0002-1207-9137
Chary, R.-R.0000-0001-7583-0621
Dey, Arjun0000-0002-4928-4003
Galametz, A.0000-0002-1504-8117
Jannuzi, B. T.0000-0002-1578-6582
Moustakas, L. A.0000-0003-3030-2360
Additional Information:© 2013 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 August 12; accepted 2013 October 19; published 2013 December 3. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. Support for HST programs 10496, 11002, 11597, and 11663 were provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is based in part on observations obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, under contract SV4-74018, A31 with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory which operates the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA. Support for this research was provided by NASA grant G09-0150A. This work is based in part on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. This work makes use of image data from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) as distributed by the NOAO Science Archive. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. We are grateful to the referee for a helpful report that improved the clarity of the paper. We thank P. Santini for providing her data in a digital form. We appreciate several useful conversations with C. Papovich, M. Cooper, M. Dickinson, N. Reddy, and S. Salim. This paper would not have been possible without the efforts of the support staffs of the Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and W. M. Keck Observatory.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
Smithsonian Astrophysical ObservatorySV4-74018 A31
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: distances and redshifts; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: formation; galaxies: starburst
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140121-101550209
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The Era of Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters M. Brodwin et al. 2013 ApJ 779 138
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:43451
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:21 Jan 2014 21:47
Last Modified:13 Jul 2020 22:31

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