A Caltech Library Service

Ancient Aqueous Environments at Endeavour Crater, Mars

Arvidson, R. E. and Squyres, S. W. and Bell, J. F., III and Catalano, J. G. and Clark, B. C. and Crumpler, L. S. and de Souza, P. A., Jr. and Fairén, A. G. and Farrand, W. H. and Fox, V. K. and Gellert, R. and Ghosh, A. and Golombek, M. P. and Grotzinger, J. P. and Guinness, E. A. and Herkenhoff, K. E. and Jolliff, B. L. and Knoll, A. H. and Li, R. and McLennan, S. M. and Ming, D. W. and Mittlefehldt, D. W. and Moore, J. M. and Morris, R. V. and Murchie, S. L. and Parker, T. J. and Paulsen, G. and Rice, J. W. and Ruff, S. W. and Smith, M. D. and Wolff, M. J. (2014) Ancient Aqueous Environments at Endeavour Crater, Mars. Science, 343 (6169). Art. No. 1248097. ISSN 0036-8075.

PDF - Accepted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Opportunity has investigated in detail rocks on the rim of the Noachian age Endeavour Crater, where orbital spectral reflectance signatures indicate the presence of Fe⁺³-rich smectites. The signatures are associated with fine-grained, layered rocks containing spherules of diagenetic or impact origin. The layered rocks are overlain by breccias and both units are cut by calcium sulfate veins precipitated from fluids that circulated after the Endeavour impact. Compositional data for fractures in the layered rocks suggest formation of Al-rich smectites by aqueous leaching. Evidence is thus preserved for water-rock interactions before and after the impact, with aqueous environments of slightly acidic to circum-neutral pH that would have been more favorable for prebiotic chemistry and microorganisms than those recorded by younger sulfate-rich rocks at Meridiani Planum.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription DOIArticle PDF Article HTML Article materials interview
Arvidson, R. E.0000-0002-2854-0362
Bell, J. F., III0000-0002-2006-4074
Catalano, J. G.0000-0001-9311-977X
Clark, B. C.0000-0002-5546-8757
Gellert, R.0000-0001-7928-834X
Golombek, M. P.0000-0002-1928-2293
Grotzinger, J. P.0000-0001-9324-1257
Guinness, E. A.0000-0002-0172-3441
Herkenhoff, K. E.0000-0002-3153-6663
Knoll, A. H.0000-0003-1308-8585
McLennan, S. M.0000-0003-4259-7178
Ming, D. W.0000-0003-0567-8876
Mittlefehldt, D. W.0000-0002-5920-8987
Murchie, S. L.0000-0002-1616-8751
Alternate Title:Exploring Martian Habitability
Additional Information:© 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Submitted: 11/04/13; Revised: 12/8/13. This work was supported by NASA. The CRISM operations team at the Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, and the Opportunity operations team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology were responsible for planning and acquiring the relevant data. The NASA Planetary Data System through the Geosciences Node ( provides access to the CRISM and Opportunity data used in this paper.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:Endeavour Crater, Mars ; Mars Exploration Rover ; Opportunity
Non-Subject Keywords:Mars Exploration Rover ; Opportunity ; NASA
Issue or Number:6169
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140122-094239070
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ancient Aqueous Environments at Endeavour Crater, Mars R. E. Arvidson, S. W. Squyres, J. F. Bell III, J. G. Catalano, B. C. Clark, L. S. Crumpler, P. A. de Souza Jr., A. G. Fairén, W. H. Farrand, V. K. Fox, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, E. A. Guinness, K. E. Herkenhoff, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, R. Li, S. M. McLennan, D. W. Ming, D. W. Mittlefehldt, J. M. Moore, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, T. J. Parker, G. Paulsen, J. W. Rice, S. W. Ruff, M. D. Smith, and M. J. Wolff Science 24 January 2014: 343 (6169), 1248097 [DOI:10.1126/science.1248097]
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:43468
Deposited By: Katherine Johnson
Deposited On:27 Jan 2014 23:42
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

Repository Staff Only: item control page