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The TRENDS High-contrast Imaging Survey. IV. The Occurrence Rate of Giant Planets around M Dwarfs

Montet, Benjamin T. and Crepp, Justin R. and Johnson, John Asher and Howard, Andrew W. and Marcy, Geoffrey W. (2014) The TRENDS High-contrast Imaging Survey. IV. The Occurrence Rate of Giant Planets around M Dwarfs. Astrophysical Journal, 781 (1). Art. No. 28. ISSN 0004-637X.

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Doppler-based planet surveys have discovered numerous giant planets but are incomplete beyond several AU. At larger star–planet separations, direct planet detection through high-contrast imaging has proven successful, but this technique is sensitive only to young planets and characterization relies upon theoretical evolution models. Here we demonstrate that radial velocity measurements and high-contrast imaging can be combined to overcome these issues. The presence of widely separated companions can be deduced by identifying an acceleration (long-term trend) in the radial velocity of a star. By obtaining high spatial resolution follow-up imaging observations, we rule out scenarios in which such accelerations are caused by stellar binary companions with high statistical confidence. We report results from an analysis of Doppler measurements of a sample of 111 M-dwarf stars with a median of 29 radial velocity observations over a median time baseline of 11.8 yr. By targeting stars that exhibit a radial velocity acceleration ("trend") with adaptive optics imaging, we determine that 6.5% ± 3.0% of M-dwarf stars host one or more massive companions with 1 < m/M_J < 13 and 0 < a < 20 AU. These results are lower than analyses of the planet occurrence rate around higher-mass stars. We find the giant planet occurrence rate is described by a double power law in stellar mass M and metallicity F ≡ [Fe/H] such that f(M, F) = 0.039^+0.056)_(-0.028)M^(0.8)^(+1.1)_(-0.9) 10^(3.8±1.2). Our results are consistent with gravitational microlensing measurements of the planet occurrence rate; this study represents the first model-independent comparison with microlensing observations.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Montet, Benjamin T.0000-0001-7516-8308
Crepp, Justin R.0000-0003-0800-0593
Johnson, John Asher0000-0001-9808-7172
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Marcy, Geoffrey W.0000-0002-2909-0113
Additional Information:© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 July 22; accepted 2013 December 4; published 2014 January 2. Most of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. We thank the staff of the Palomar Observatory for their help in maximizing the efficiency and quality of the 200" Hale Telescope. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. We made use of the SIMBAD database operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, and NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services. We thank Jon Swift for collecting NIRC2 observations of HIP 57050. We also thank Brendan Bowler for helpful comments on an early version of this manuscript. B.T.M. is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant No. DGE1144469. The TRENDS high-contrast imaging program is supported by NASA Origins grant NNX13AB03G. J.A.J. is supported by generous grants from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. B.T.M. would also like to thank the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute; conversations at the 2013 June Modern Statistical and Computational Methods for Analysis of Kepler Data workshop at SAMSI improved the final version of this manuscript. Finally, the authors recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords: methods: observational; planets and satellites: detection; planets and satellites: fundamental parameters; techniques: high angular resolution; techniques: radial velocities
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140207-115022830
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Official Citation:The TRENDS High-contrast Imaging Survey. IV. The Occurrence Rate of Giant Planets around M Dwarfs Benjamin T. Montet et al. 2014 ApJ 781 28
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:43726
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:07 Feb 2014 21:53
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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