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SN 2010jl: Optical to Hard X-Ray Observations Reveal an Explosion Embedded in a Ten Solar Mass Cocoon

Ofek, Eran O. and Harrison, Fiona A. and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Bellm, Eric and Grefenstette, Brian and Laher, Russ and Madsen, Kristin and Surace, Jason (2014) SN 2010jl: Optical to Hard X-Ray Observations Reveal an Explosion Embedded in a Ten Solar Mass Cocoon. Astrophysical Journal, 781 (1). Art. No. 42. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/42.

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Some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the interaction of the SN ejecta with a large amount of circumstellar matter (CSM). However, quantitative estimates of the CSM mass around such SNe are missing when the CSM material is optically thick. Specifically, current estimators are sensitive to uncertainties regarding the CSM density profile and the ejecta velocity. Here we outline a method to measure the mass of the optically thick CSM around such SNe. We present new visible-light and X-ray observations of SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), including the first detection of an SN in the hard X-ray band using NuSTAR. The total radiated luminosity of SN 2010jl is extreme—at least 9 × 10^50 erg. By modeling the visible-light data, we robustly show that the mass of the circumstellar material within ~10^16 cm of the progenitor of SN 2010jl was in excess of 10 M_☉. This mass was likely ejected tens of years prior to the SN explosion. Our modeling suggests that the shock velocity during shock breakout was ~6000 km s^–1, decelerating to ~2600 km s^–1 about 2 yr after maximum light. Furthermore, our late-time NuSTAR and XMM spectra of the SN presumably provide the first direct measurement of SN shock velocity 2 yr after the SN maximum light—measured to be in the range of 2000-4500 km s^–1 if the ions and electrons are in equilibrium, and ≳ 2000 km s^–1 if they are not in equilibrium. This measurement is in agreement with the shock velocity predicted by our modeling of the visible-light data. Our observations also show that the average radial density distribution of the CSM roughly follows an r^–2 law. A possible explanation for the ≳ 10 M_☉ of CSM and the wind-like profile is that they are the result of multiple pulsational pair instability events prior to the SN explosion, separated from each other by years.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Harrison, Fiona A.0000-0003-2992-8024
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Bellm, Eric0000-0001-8018-5348
Grefenstette, Brian0000-0002-1984-2932
Laher, Russ0000-0003-2451-5482
Madsen, Kristin0000-0003-1252-4891
Surace, Jason0000-0001-7291-0087
Additional Information:© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 July 2; accepted 2013 November 25; published 2014 January 6. We thank an anonymous referee for a constructive report. E.O.O. thanks Roni Waldman, Nir Sapir, and Orly Gnat for discussions. This work was supported under NASA Contract No. NNG08FD60C and made use of data from the NuSTAR mission, a project led by the California Institute of Technology, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and funded by NASA. We thank the NuSTAR Operations, Software, and Calibration teams for support with the execution and analysis of these observations. This research has made use of the NuSTAR Data Analysis Software (NuSTARDAS) jointly developed by the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, Italy) and the California Institute of Technology (USA). This paper is based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope as part of the Palomar Transient Factory project, a scientific collaboration between the California Institute of Technology, Columbia University, Las Cumbres Observatory, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, the University of Oxford, and the Weizmann Institute of Science. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We are grateful for excellent staff assistance at Palomar, Lick, and Keck Observatories. E.O.O. is incumbent of the Arye Dissentshik career development chair and is grateful to support by a grant from the Israeli Ministry of Science, Israel Science Foundation, Minerva, and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and The Israel Science Foundation (grant No 1829/12). A.V.F.’s SN group at UC Berkeley has received generous financial assistance from Gary and Cynthia Bengier, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and NSF grant AST-1211916.
Group:NuSTAR, Space Radiation Laboratory, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Planning and Budgeting Committee I-CORE ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Israel Science Foundation1829/12
Gary and Cynthia BengierUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Richard and Rhoda Goldman FundUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:stars: mass-loss; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (SN 2010jl)
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140211-134538316
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Official Citation:SN 2010jl: Optical to Hard X-Ray Observations Reveal an Explosion Embedded in a Ten Solar Mass Cocoon Eran O. Ofek et al. 2014 ApJ 781 42
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:43782
Deposited On:11 Feb 2014 22:46
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 16:43

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