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Radial Velocity Variations of Photometrically Quiet, Chromospherically Inactive Kepler Stars: A Link Between RV Jitter and Photometric Flicker

Bastien, Fabienne A. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Pepper, Joshua and Wright, Jason T. and Aigrain, Suzanne and Basri, Gibor and Johnson, John A. and Howard, Andrew W. and Walkowicz, Lucianne (2014) Radial Velocity Variations of Photometrically Quiet, Chromospherically Inactive Kepler Stars: A Link Between RV Jitter and Photometric Flicker. Astronomical Journal, 147 (2). Art. No. 29. ISSN 0004-6256.

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We compare stellar photometric variability, as measured from Kepler light curves by Basri et al., with measurements of radial velocity (RV) rms variations of all California Planet Search overlap stars. We newly derive rotation periods from the Kepler light curves for all of the stars in our study sample. The RV variations reported herein range from less than 4 to 135 m s^(–1), yet the stars all have amplitudes of photometric variability less than 3 mmag, reflecting the preference of the RV program for chromospherically "quiet" stars. Despite the small size of our sample, we find with high statistical significance that the RV rms manifests strongly in the Fourier power spectrum of the light curve: stars that are noisier in RV have a greater number of frequency components in the light curve. We also find that spot models of the observed light curves systematically underpredict the observed RV variations by factors of ~2-1000, likely because the low-level photometric variations in our sample are driven by processes not included in simple spot models. The stars best fit by these models tend to have simpler light curves, dominated by a single relatively high-amplitude component of variability. Finally, we demonstrate that the RV rms behavior of our sample can be explained in the context of the photometric variability evolutionary diagram introduced by Bastien et al. We use this diagram to derive the surface gravities of the stars in our sample, revealing many of them to have moved off the main sequence. More generally, we find that the stars with the largest RV rms are those that have evolved onto the "flicker floor" sequence in that diagram, characterized by relatively low amplitude but highly complex photometric variations which grow as the stars evolve to become subgiants.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bastien, Fabienne A.0000-0002-7243-1921
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Pepper, Joshua0000-0002-3827-8417
Wright, Jason T.0000-0001-6160-5888
Aigrain, Suzanne0000-0003-1453-0574
Johnson, John A.0000-0001-9808-7172
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Additional Information:© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2012 December 31; accepted 2013 October 14; published 2013 December 30. We thank Geoff Marcy and the California Planet Search for sharing the RV rms values used in this work in advance of publication, and we thank John Brewer and Debra Fischer for allowing us to report their v sin i’s, also in advance of publication. Geoff Marcy and Howard Isaacson kindly obtained and shared with us additional Keck RV measurements of HD 177153. We additionally acknowledge helpful discussions with Heather Cegla, Leslie Hebb, Steve Saar, and Angie Wolfgang. F.A.B. acknowledges support from a NASA Harriett Jenkins pre-doctoral fellowship and from a Vanderbilt Provost graduate fellowship. This work was supported in part by NASA ADAP grant NNX12AE22G to K.G.S. The Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds is supported by the Pennsylvania State University, the Eberly College of Science, and the Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium. Some of the data herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Harriett Jenkins predoctoral fellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Vanderbilt UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Pennsylvania State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Eberly College of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Pennsylvania Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords: stars: activity; stars: solar-type; techniques: photometric; techniques: radial velocities
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140218-151749997
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Official Citation:Radial Velocity Variations of Photometrically Quiet, Chromospherically Inactive Kepler Stars: A Link between RV Jitter and Photometric Flicker Fabienne A. Bastien et al. 2014 The Astronomical Journal 147 29
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:43859
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:18 Feb 2014 23:40
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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