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The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

Belton, Michael J. S. and Klaasen, Kenneth P. and Clary, Maurice C. and Anderson, James L. and Anger, Clifford D. and Carr, Michael H and Chapman, Clark R. and Davies, Merton E. and Greeley, Ronald and Anderson, Donald and Bolef, Lawrence K. and Townsend, Timothy E. and Greenberg, Richard and Head, James W., III and Neukum, Gerhard and Pilcher, Carl B. and Veverka, Joseph and Gierasch, Peter J. and Fanale, Fraser P. and Ingersoll, Andrew P. and Masursky, Harold and Morrison, David and Pollack, James B. (1992) The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment. Space Science Reviews, 60 (1-4). pp. 413-455. ISSN 0038-6308. doi:10.1007/BF00216864.

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The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 × 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (∼ 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ∼ 50 m lp^(-1)) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ∼ 11 with S/N ∼ 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information ‘preserving’ and ‘non-preserving’ on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special “summation” mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is ‘preflashed’ before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity. The dynamic range is spread over 3 gain states and an exposure range from 4.17 ms to 51.2 s. A low-level of radial, third-order, geometric distortion has been measured in the raw images that is entirely due to the optical design. The distortion is of the pincushion type and amounts to about 1.2 pixels in the corners of the images. It is expected to be very stable. We discuss the measurement objectives of the SSI experiment in the Jupiter system and emphasize their relationships to those of other experiments in the Galileo project. We outline objectives for Jupiter atmospheric science, noting the relationship of SSI data to that to be returned by experiments on the atmospheric entry Probe. We also outline SSI objectives for satellite surfaces, ring structure, and ‘darkside’ (e.g., aurorae, lightning, etc.) experiments. Proposed cruise measurement objectives that relate to encounters at Venus, Moon, Earth, Gaspra, and, possibly, Ida are also briefly outlined. The article concludes with a description of a ‘fully distributed’ data analysis system (HIIPS) that SSI team members intend to use at their home institutions. We also list the nature of systematic data products that will become available to the scientific community. Finally, we append a short ‘historical’ note outlining the responsibilities and roles of institutions and individuals that have been involved in the 14 year development of the SSI experiment so far.

Item Type:Article
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Head, James W., III0000-0003-2013-560X
Ingersoll, Andrew P.0000-0002-2035-9198
Additional Information:© 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Individuals who have made important contribution to the experiment include E. Alvarez, T. Colvin, C. Cunningham, D. Godfrey, P. Helfenstein, S. Howell, C. Pieters, P. Thomas, T. Thompson, C. Anger acknowledges support from the Canadian National Science and Engineering Research Council and from the Ontario Institute for Space and Terrestrial Science. G. Neukum acknowledges support from the German government. The Planetary Science Institute is a division of Science Applications International Corporation. The National Optical Astronomy Observatories are operated by AURA Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.
Group:UNSPECIFIED, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
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Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Institute for Space and Terrestrial ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:1-4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140226-085507577
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:44002
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:26 Feb 2014 17:26
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 16:46

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