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HOPS 136: An Edge-On Orion Protostar Near the End of Envelope Infall

Fischer, William J. and Megeath, S. Thomas and Tobin, John J. and Hartmann, Lee and Stutz, Amelia M. and Kounkel, Marina and Poteet, Charles A. and Ali, Babar and Osorio, Mayra and Manoj, P. and Remming, Ian and Stanke, Thomas and Watson, Dan M. (2014) HOPS 136: An Edge-On Orion Protostar Near the End of Envelope Infall. Astrophysical Journal, 781 (2). Art. No. 123. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/781/2/123.

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Edge-on protostars are valuable for understanding the disk and envelope properties of embedded young stellar objects, since the disk, envelope, and envelope cavities are all distinctly visible in resolved images and well constrained in modeling. Comparing Two Micron All Sky Survey, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Spitzer, Herschel, and APEX photometry and an IRAM limit from 1.2 to 1200 μm, Spitzer spectroscopy from 5 to 40 μm, and high-resolution Hubble imaging at 1.60 and 2.05 μm to radiative transfer modeling, we determine envelope and disk properties for the Class I protostar HOPS 136, an edge-on source in Orion's Lynds 1641 region. The source has a bolometric luminosity of 0.8 L_☉, a bolometric temperature of 170 K, and a ratio of submillimeter to bolometric luminosity of 0.8%. Via modeling, we find a total luminosity of 4.7 L_☉ (larger than the observed luminosity due to extinction by the disk), an envelope mass of 0.06  M_☉, and a disk radius and mass of 450 AU and 0.002 M_☉. The stellar mass is highly uncertain but is estimated to fall between 0.4 and 0.5 M_☉. To reproduce the flux and wavelength of the near-infrared scattered-light peak in the spectral energy distribution, we require 5.4 × 10^(−5)  M_☉ of gas and dust in each cavity. The disk has a large radius and a mass typical of more evolved T Tauri disks in spite of the significant remaining envelope. HOPS 136 appears to be a key link between the protostellar and optically revealed stages of star formation.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Fischer, William J.0000-0002-3747-2496
Megeath, S. Thomas0000-0001-7629-3573
Tobin, John J.0000-0002-6195-0152
Hartmann, Lee0000-0003-1430-8519
Stutz, Amelia M.0000-0003-2300-8200
Kounkel, Marina0000-0002-5365-1267
Poteet, Charles A.0000-0003-4845-7483
Manoj, P.0000-0002-3530-304X
Additional Information:© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 November 15; accepted 2013 December 19; published 2014 January 16. Support for this work was provided by NASA through awards issued by JPL/Caltech. This paper includes data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL/Caltech under a contract with NASA. We also include observations made under program 11548 of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. We include data from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory. These data were collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under proposal 088.C-0994. This paper makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, funded by NASA and the NSF, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA. J.J.T. acknowledges support provided by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant #HST-HF-51300.01-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The work of A.M.S. was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft priority program 1573 (“Physics of the Interstellar Medium”). M.K. acknowledges support from the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates program of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Toledo (grant PHY-1004649). M.O. acknowledges support from MINECO (Spain) AYA2011-30228-C03 grant (co-funded with FEDER funds). We are grateful to Barbara Whitney, Tom Robitaille, and their collaborators for making their radiative transfer code and fitting tools available to the community.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
Wide-field Infrared Survey ExplorerUNSPECIFIED
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF-51300.01-A
Associated Universities, Inc.UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)1573
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2011-30228-C03-01
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:circumstellar matter; infrared: stars; stars: formation; stars: protostars
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140324-073205490
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:HOPS 136: An Edge-on Orion Protostar near the End of Envelope Infall William J. Fischer et al. 2014 ApJ 781 123
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:44446
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:25 Mar 2014 20:18
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 16:52

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