A Caltech Library Service

Biogenic gas nanostructures as ultrasonic molecular reporters

Shapiro, Mikhail G. and Goodwill, Patrick W. and Neogy, Arkosnato and Yin, Melissa and Foster, F. Stuart and Schaffer, David V. and Conolly, Steven M. (2014) Biogenic gas nanostructures as ultrasonic molecular reporters. Nature Nanotechnology, 9 (4). pp. 311-316. ISSN 1748-3387. PMCID PMC4023545. doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.32.

[img] PDF - Accepted Version
See Usage Policy.

PDF - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

[img] Video (QuickTime) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Ultrasound is among the most widely used non-invasive imaging modalities in biomedicine, but plays a surprisingly small role in molecular imaging due to a lack of suitable molecular reporters on the nanoscale. Here, we introduce a new class of reporters for ultrasound based on genetically encoded gas nanostructures from microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Gas vesicles are gas-filled protein-shelled compartments with typical widths of 45–250 nm and lengths of 100–600 nm that exclude water and are permeable to gas. We show that gas vesicles produce stable ultrasound contrast that is readily detected in vitro and in vivo, that their genetically encoded physical properties enable multiple modes of imaging, and that contrast enhancement through aggregation permits their use as molecular biosensors.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription information ReadCube access
Shapiro, Mikhail G.0000-0002-0291-4215
Additional Information:© 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 20 November 2012; Accepted 28 January 2014; Published online 16 March 2014. The authors thank P. Lumfor ultrasound equipment and advice, R. Zalpuri and K. McDonald for assistance with electron microscopy, K-K. Park and P. Khuri-Yakub for assistance with hydrophone measurements, E. Chérin for input on in vivo experiments and the manuscript, and A. Bar-Zion for assistance with data analysis. M.G.S. acknowledges funding from the Miller Research Institute and the Burroughs Wellcome Career Award at the Scientific Interface. Other funding was provided by California Institute for Regenerative Medicine grant RT2-02022 (D.V.S.), National Institutes of Health grant R01EB013689 (S.M.C), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (F.S.F.) and the Terry Fox Foundation (F.S.F.). Author contributions: M.G.S. conceived and directed the study, planned the experiments, prepared the specimens, collected, analysed and interpreted the data, and wrote the manuscript, with input from all other authors. P.W.G. designed and constructed the imaging instrument and accompanying signal processing software, and assisted with initial experiments. A.N. designed, constructed and optimized the imaging instrument and accompanying signal processing software. F.S.F. and M.Y. designed, performed and analysed the data from in vivo experiments. All authors provided input on the study and experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation and the manuscript.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Miller Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Burroughs Wellcome Career Award at the Scientific InterfaceUNSPECIFIED
California Institute for Regenerative MedicineRT2-02022
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)UNSPECIFIED
Terry Fox FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:4
PubMed Central ID:PMC4023545
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140423-142811017
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:45169
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:23 Apr 2014 21:42
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 17:00

Repository Staff Only: item control page