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Coseismic thrusting and folding in the 1999 M_w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake: A high-resolution approach by aerial photos taken from Tsaotun, central Taiwan

Kuo, Yu-Ting and Ayoub, François and Leprince, Sébastien and Chen, Yue-Gau and Avouac, Jean-Philippe and Shyu, J. Bruce H. and Lai, Kuang-Yin and Kuo, Yu-Ju (2014) Coseismic thrusting and folding in the 1999 M_w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake: A high-resolution approach by aerial photos taken from Tsaotun, central Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 119 (1). pp. 645-660. ISSN 2169-9313. doi:10.1002/2013JB010308.

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We used aerial photos taken before and after the 21 September 1999, M_w 7.6, Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan to measure the near-field ground deformation. A total of 12 pairs of images were processed with Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation to produce a horizontal displacement map of a 10 km × 10 km area near Tsaotun. Using pairs of images with different viewing angles, both the horizontal and vertical slip across the fault zone can be measured. Our measurements when resampled into lower resolution are consistent with lower resolution measurements of horizontal displacements obtained from SPOT images, as well as with vertical displacements obtained from repeated leveling measurements and field observations. Horizontal strain is strongly localized along the Chelungpu fault (CLPF) and along a secondary scarp that runs parallel to the CLPF about 2 km to the east, the Ailiao fold scarp (ALF). This pattern closely matches the surface ruptures mapped in the field. Horizontal strain across CLPF correlates remarkably well with the topographic features produced by long-term deformation. The cumulative horizontal shortening across the CLPF and ALF amounts to 4.9 ± 0.4 and 6.1 ± 0.6 m, respectively, and fault-parallel displacement is 3.4 ± 0.4 m. The pattern of surface strain is consistent with the interpretation of the ALF as a fold scarp formed over an active axial hinge zone. This study shows that, even in this compressional setting, most surface deformation is localized within narrow fault zones or active axial hinges.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Ayoub, François0000-0002-7389-8400
Leprince, Sébastien0000-0003-4555-8975
Chen, Yue-Gau0000-0002-8693-583X
Avouac, Jean-Philippe0000-0002-3060-8442
Shyu, J. Bruce H.0000-0002-2564-3702
Additional Information:© 2014 American Geophysical Union. Issue published online: 7 MAR 2014; Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014; Accepted manuscript online: 17 DEC 2013 08:35AM EST; Manuscript Accepted: 5 DEC 2013; Manuscript Revised: 1 DEC 2013; Manuscript Received: 3 JUN 2013. This study was supported by the IES, and NSC under grants 93-2119-M-002-026, 94-2119-M-002-002, and 95-2119-M-002-041, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the Tectonics Observatory at Caltech. We thank CGS for the original geodetic and leveling data. We are also grateful for valuable discussions with Y.M. Wu, Y.C. Chan, Y.J. Hsu, S.J. Lee, J.C. Hu, and C.P. Chang. Finally, we are thankful to the suggestions and comments from the Associate Editor, S. Dominguez, J. Hollingsworth, and an anonymous reviewer.
Group:Caltech Tectonics Observatory, Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Science Council (Taipei)93-2119-M-002-026
National Science Council (Taipei)94-2119-M-002-002
National Science Council (Taipei)95-2119-M-002-041
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Caltech Tectonics ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Chi-Chi earthquake; Tsaotun; thrust fault; fold scarp; fault bend; COSI-Corr
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140428-143524749
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Official Citation:Kuo, Y.-T., F. Ayoub, S. Leprince, Y.-G. Chen, J.-P. Avouac, J. B. H. Shyu, K.-Y. Lai, and Y.-J. Kuo (2014), Coseismic thrusting and folding in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake: A high-resolution approach by aerial photos taken from Tsaotun, central Taiwan, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 119, 645–660, doi:10.1002/2013JB010308.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:45254
Deposited On:28 Apr 2014 22:45
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 17:02

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